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OVERVIEW OF THE SELECTED TROPICAL FRUIT IN THE PHILIPPINES

 
Dr. Jocelyn E. Eusebio
Director of the Crops Research Division of the Philippines Council for Agriculture,
Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD)
of the Department of Science and Technology ( DOST),
Los Ba?os, Laguna 4030, Philippines.
 
 
ABSTRACT
 
This paper presents the status of the selected tropical fruit in the Philippines based on the production and export/import statistics, crop management, policy and regulatory laws , research and development areas, the deliverables of the industry strategic plans, the involvement of policy makers and the role of the identified key institutes implementing the research and development activities.  There are four (4) selected tropical fruit; namely banana, mangoes, durian and jackfruit which were considered in this paper because the banana and mangoes are export commodities while durian and jackfruit are also promising.  The Philippines ranks third as the top banana producing countries in 2010, including India and China.  Davao and Mindanao contribute heavily to the total national banana crop. Mangoes are the third most important fruit crop of the country based on export volume and value next to bananas. On the other hand, durian and jackfruit are gaining importance due to their increasing demand in the local market, and potential for export as processed products.
 
The Industry Strategic S&T Plans (ISPs) of the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development Council (PCAARRD) for the selected fruit were crafted and will be transformed into doable research and development programs to develop scientific and technology based solutions towards increased productivity and ensured profitability.
 
The existing regulatory laws and guidelines to produce quality fruit for the export markets are well defined and being adopted by the key institutions and players of the fruit industry.  The partnership with international organizations or centers strengthened the capacity of the critical mass of experts and provided new techniques and approaches for the progress of fruit crop industry in the country.
 
 
Keywords: Philippines tropical fruit, crop management, fruit statistics
 
 
INTRODUCTION
 
The Philippines is the 39th largest country in the world, according to 2013 World Bank statistics, and is also one of the emerging markets. The Philippines is considered as a newly industrialized country, which has been transitioning from being one based on agriculture to one that is based more on services and manufacturing. According to the World Bank ICP 2011, the estimated 2011 GDP (purchasing power parity) was US$543.7 billion. Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, the Philippines will be the 14th largest economy in the world, and also included the Philippines in its list of the Next Eleven economies. According to HSBC, the Philippine economy will become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the Southeast Asian region by 2050.
 
The Philippine agriculture expanded by 1.83% in 2014. The sector's growth was contributed by the production increments in the crops, livestock and poultry subsectors. Gross earnings amounted to Php1.6 trillion at current prices or 9.71% higher than last year's earnings. It also employs 32% of the Filipino workforce as of 2013, according to World Bank statistics. Agriculture accounts for 12% of Philippines GDP as of 2013, according to the World Bank. The type of activity ranges from small subsistence farming and fishing to large commercial ventures with significant export focus. The crops subsector which shared 52% in total agricultural production grew by 3.25 % in 2014. 
 
The Philippines is the world's largest producer of pineapples, producing 2,198 thousand MT in 2009. The Philippines was also in the top three banana producing countries in 2010, including India and China.  Davao and Mindanao contribute heavily to the total national banana crop. Mangoes are the third most important fruit crop of the country based on export volume and value next to bananas and pineapples.
 
The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) has crafted the different Industry Strategic Plans to provide the directions of what are the priority commodities that needs science and technology based programs. Out of 34 Industry Strategic Plans, tropical fruit such as mango, banana, jackfruit and durian are considered for research and development. The mango and banana are of national interest, while durian and jackfruit are of regional concerns.
 
OBJECTIVES
 
The primary goal of this paper is to discuss the industry status of the four commodities in terms of their productivity, research agenda and technologies. The productivity will anchor the packages of technologies and science based research interventions that will provide increased performance of the commodities, the science based solutions to the research gaps of the industry and R and D system to include policy concerns.
 
METHODOLOGY
 
The primary data were sourced from authorized institutions working on production statistics like the Philippine Statistics Authority and Food and Agriculture Organizations (FAO). On the research system, the information and R and D agenda of the PCAARRD Corporate Plan which the Industry Strategic Plans are embedded were used, and for the technologies or science-based were retrieved from the research outputs of different implementing institutions or research partners, both from the national and regional research and development programs. The policy concerns were sourced from the regulatory authorities like the Department of Agriculture and from the other members of the National Research System working on tropical fruit R and D program.
 
Source data
 
This paper will focus on four tropical fruit (banana, mango, durian and jackfruit). These fruit were selected based on their economic importance and the research priority agenda in the Industry Strategic Plans. The Industry Strategic S&T Plans (ISPs) were crafted to (1) set the vision and direction for S&T for the agriculture, aquatic, and natural resources sectors, and (2) influence other NIS actors to align their collective efforts towards such S&T vision. The ISP describes the targets for each industry and pinpoints the aspects of the industry where S&T will make a difference. Moreover, the ISP encapsulates and proposes how the vision can be operationalized through specific activities under each of the major banner programs. Overall, the ISP is PCAARRD's contribution in shaping and forging desired societal outcomes. The ISPs are translated into research and development programs where science based interventions are identified along the technology chain.
 
Production statistics of tropical fruit
 
The agricultural land area of the country is almost 10 million hectares and a big portion is devoted to tropical fruit production which is large contributory to its economic growth as export commodities like banana and mango to foreign markets.
 
The country’s banana production declined from 9,013 thousand MT in 2009 to 8,646 thousand MT in 2013. The total area planted to banana is from 454 thousand hectares in 2012 to 446 thousand hectares in 2013. The top five (5) producing provinces were all from Mindanao, namely, Davao del Norte, Bukidnon, North Cotabato, Compostela Valley and Davao del Sur. Combined output from these provinces accounted 53% of the total banana production of the country (Fig. 1).  In terms of area planted, Davao del Norte shared the largest at 35,000 hectares or 8% of the national total (Fig. 2).  Bukidnon ranked next at 5%. Compostela Valley, Maguindanao and North Cotabato followed with a share of 4% each.
 
In terms of banana varieties, Cavendish variety shared about 29% of the total banana production in the country and Lacatan shared the least (Fig. 3). From 2009 to 2013, Cavendish banana production decreased from 4,498 thousand MT to 4,230 thousand MT. The major producing provinces were Davao del Norte, Bukidnon and Compostela Valley with a combined share of nearly three-fourths of the national production for this variety. These provinces comprised 69% of the total area planted.
 
The production of Lacatan from 2009 to 2013 increased from 917 thousand MT in 2009 to 930 thousand MT in 2013. North Cotabato had the biggest share in terms of production at 134 thousand MT (Fig. 4).  Davao Oriental had the largest area planted at 4,120 hectares.
 
The Saba variety production dropped from 2,636 thousand MT in 2009 to 2,557 thousand MT in 2013. North Cotabato and Davao del Sur were the major producing provinces which accounted for 22% of the total saba production in the country (Fig. 5).
 
Mango
 
Mango production grew from 771 thousand MT in 2009 to 816 thousand MT in 2013 and the number of bearing trees increased by 1.33% (Fig. 6). In 2013, mango production was higher by 6.24% over the 2012 level.
 
The production of Carabao variety increased by an average of 1.98% annually from 2009 to 2013.  Area planted and number of bearing trees exhibited positive growth in 2013. The 2013 production of 672 thousand MT was higher by 6.56% from the 2012 level.  Pangasinan was the major producing province. Other carabao-mango producing provinces were Zamboanga del Norte, Cebu, Batangas and IlocosNorte.
 
Propagation of planting materials
 
The different fruit crops have different uses and forms of propagation. They vary from sources of scions and root stocks and the different methods of propagation which can be traditional/conventional or using tissue culture technology.
 
Banana
 
For the conventional method of planting, banana growers use suckers (preferably sword suckers), whole corms, seed pieces (a corm cut into pieces with each piece/bit bearing at least one good bud), or ball heads. Small-hold farmers still use the traditional planting materials. 
 
Tissue cultured meriplants/ planting materials are being used by commercial scale plantations and small-hold farms that are into monocropping (Fig. 7).
 
Mango
 
Mango is propagated by sexual (seed) and asexual (vegetative) means. Asexually propagated plants are preferred by farmers because they bear fruit earlier, shorter and true-to-type. Cleft grafting is the most successful and popular asexual propagation technique in the Philippines. According to the DAP benchmarking study, commercial and backyard growers have century old trees, and no conscious and deliberate effort is done to replace the old trees. Asexually propagated plants are used for new orchard establishment and to replace trees that no longer bear fruit, or either dead or fallen.
 
The typical requirements of good planting materials are vigor and good varietal characteristics. It is highly recommended to buy planting materials from nurseries accredited by Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) of the Department of Agriculture (DA).  In 2013, there are eight accredited mango nurseries in the Philippines. Grafted seedlings are sold for Php30 at BPI -Los Baños National Crop Research and Development Center (LBNCRDC).
 
Jackfruit
 
Jackfruit is usually propagated by seeds or by asexual propagation. Farmers who propagate by seeds should select healthy, vigorous, and disease-resistant seeds from productive mother trees. A sexual propagation can be done by enriching or grafting. Among the grafting methods, cleft grafting appears to be the most effective as it is able to counter the devastating effects of a typhoon which usually destroys tall trees. A cleft grafted tree is high in genetic quality, grows short but strong in stature. Its branches tend to spread sidewards.
 
Durian
 
Durian is better propagated asexually through budding and grafting. If propagated sexually, durian does not grow true-to-type because it is highly cross pollinated (Appendix 1-3).
 
Asexual propagation of durian has several advantages: a) genetic make-up is known in terms of fruit quality, size, time of flowering, length of time to maturity, fruitfulness and precocity; b) trees are generally smaller than sexually propagated trees allowing more trees planted per hectare and more economical labor cost in maintenance and harvesting; c) trees bear fruits early; and d) all trees will likely bear fruits. 
 
Quality/standards required for planting materials
 
Pursuant to the provisions of the Seed Industry Development Act of 1992, Chapter III, Article II, Section 3C and Administrative Order #44, the General Guidelines for Certification of Fruits and Plantation Crops, the minimum standards for mango and durian are adopted to ensure production and distribution of high quality planting materials.
 
Table 1 and Table 2 show the specific requirements to attain quality plant materials that are true-to-type and of genetic purity, planting materials should pass morphological and pomological evaluation to become certified as scion sources.
 
Furthermore, the following are the standards for the scion:
  1. Scion must be 203 months old, 5- cms, plump and have active growing points; 
  2. Leaves at the growing points must be mature, green to dark green in color and crispy when crushed;
  3. Scion size must equal or should be smaller than the rootstock, and
  4. Scions to be gathered must be straight and free from any infection and infestation.
Planting materials qualifying for the standards for plant material certification shall be tagged/labelled with the following code/information:
 
Diversity of fruit species
 
The Philippines is endowed with rich genetic resources and is the center of diversity for banana and other tropical fruit. The commercially available fruit varieties are registered with the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC) and two important export commodities are Cavendish banana and Carabao mangoes. The two minor fruit crops, jackfruit and durian are of regional importance for they have potentials in the export market.
 
In the Philippines, ‘Carabao’ mango is the only commercial cultivar which is known as Manila Super Mango in the export market with excellent eating quality and aromatic flavor. There are 12 strains or selections registered in NSIC namely Guimaras (GES73, 77, 84, 85, Fresco, Talaban, Tanaleon, Super Guimaras or Galila), BatacIlocos MMSU Gold, Zambales Sweet Elena, Bataan Lamao No. 1, and Efondo.  Aside from ‘Carabao’ mango, there are also other important mango varieties such as ‘Pico’ and ‘Katchamitha’.  ‘Pico’ and ‘Katchamitha’, popularly known as ‘Indian’ mango.
 
For banana, the most popularly planted among the 80 distinct cultivars are 'Cavendish', Saba', 'Lakatan', 'Latundan', and 'Bungulan'. Cavendish as fresh banana is the only variety which is exported to other foreign markets and the rest are for local consumption. The Saba variety , on the other hand, is the most popular for processing and exported to other countries as processed banana chips.
 
The jackfruit varieties and cultivars in the Philippines are Cervantes Gold, Sinapelo and ‘EVIARC Sweet’ is named after the Department of Agriculture - Eastern Visayas Integrated Research Center – (DA-EVIARC). This variety was registered at NSIC in 2007.  Other jackfruit cultivars grown in the Philippines are: AES Jack #1, AES Jak # 2, AES Jak # 3 and, ACC # 4 Burabod. These cultivars have a spreading growth habit. Fruit weigh 5.20 to 12.30 kg with yellow to rich yellow flesh.  There are also local cultivars namely ‘Tinumbaga’ and ‘Sinaba’.  ‘Tinumbaga’ has thin pulp, strong aroma, sweet taste and has bright yellow or amber color. ‘Sinaba’, on the other hand, has thick pulp, long aril, has small seed and good eating quality. 
 
Farmgate price
 
The farmgate prices of the four selected crops showed variances among varieties and within strains. The green Carabao mango and durian were recorded to have the highest farmgate prices while bananas, except Lakatan, were recorded to have the lowest prices.  Also Lakatan variety showed an increasing trend of its farmgate price for the past six years (Table 3).
 
Based on Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) data, ‘Carabao’ mango commands the highest farmgate price from 2008-2013 among the mangoes planted in the Philippines (Fig. 8). ‘Carabao’ mangoes are sold for Php28 - Php29, ‘Pico’ mangoes for Php17-19, while, ‘Indian’ mangoes for P6-8. 
 
EXPORT MARKET
 
There are different requirements to meet before the fruit crops are exported to importing countries. The following are the strict regulatory needs before mangoes are shipped to other countries. Mangoes being exported to Japan and Korea are being graded and classified according to the following export standards: 1) fully matured (110-125 days from flower induction), 2) free from defective quality, cleaned and properly trimmed. 3) maximum of 5% on surface area for latex burn, 4) no physical and mechanical defects, 5) Free from pests and diseases (insects/worm damage) and purely Philippine variety of typical shape. It requires also proper sizing and grading with appropriate size classification (Table 4).
 
The Japanese government has specified a protocol for the control of fruitfly and imposed conditions before Philippine mangoes are allowed entry to Japan. The fruit should be subjected to vapor heat treatment (VHT), packed in cartons in an enclosed packaging area, and inspected before shipment by a personnel from the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (MAFF) (Table 5).
 
On the other hand, the proximity of Hongkong to the Philippines has a great advantage and has become the trading path of most fruit crops. There are two Hongkong market distribution centers, one in Kowloon (YauMaTei) and in Hongkong side (western wholesale and food market). Importation requirements and protocol are simple and easy to comply with and it is a consignment market wherein no fix price is set prior to shipment and payment is made days after shipment arrival. The terms of payment would run from seven days or more, depending on preset arrangement. The HongKong importers are generally referred to as brokers.
 
For the China market, the Philippine exporters access China market thru Hongkong not only because of logistical convenience but for credit and banking facilities. It is estimated that about 30 to 40% of Philippine mangoes shipped to Hong Kong are transshipped to Nan Hai Li Shui. Fruit trading in Nan Hai Li Shui is one credit term arrangement.
 
USA allows importation of mangoes only from Guimaras island where it was inspected and found free of mango seed weevil and pulp weevil. Also, Philippine mangoes are exported to Hawaii and Guam from areas grown anywhere in the Philippines except Palawan. Palawan is under strict quarantine and mangoes are prohibited to be exported in the country because of the pulp weevil.  The fruit should be subjected to vapor heat treatment, packed in cartons in an enclosed packaging area, and inspected before shipment by a personnel from the USDA-APHIS. The salary, transportation and accommodation of these quarantine officers are shouldered by the exporters.
 
The national research and development fruit crops program
 
The National Research and Development Agenda of Fruit Crops are identified based on ISP. Advances and technological innovations in agriculture are addressing food security, global competitiveness and poverty alleviation programs.
 
PCAARRD is the national apex for the National Agriculture System with regional consortia to coordinate the research and development activities. The implementing arms are the research networks with members from the State Universities and Colleges, and other government private and public entities. PCAARRD closely collaborates with the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) of the DA in the complementation of R and D activities and other government research entities including state universities and private research organizations in conducting researches. For technology transfer modalities, PCAARRD ties up with the Agriculture Training Institute (ATI) of the DA and local government units from provincial, municipal to barangay level in order to reach the farmers. 
 
PCAARRD, crafted different ISPs to provide science solutions that are integral to achieving the development goals of the Philippines. PCAARRD aims to deliver these solutions through  NIS, as founded on its mandates as a science planning and coordination council.  PCAARRD thus presents (ISPs) to set and the vision and direction for S&T for the agriculture, aquatic, and natural resources sectors, and influence other NIS actors to align their collective efforts towards such S&T vision. The ISP describes the targets for each industry and pinpoints the aspects of the industry where S&T will make a difference. Moreover, the ISP encapsulates and proposes how the vision can be operationalized through specific activities under each of the major banner programs. Overall, the ISP is PCAARRD's contribution in shaping and forging desired societal outcomes.
 
ISP outcomes for banana are: 1) reduced incidence of Fusarium wilt tropical race 4 on Cavendish in Mindanao by 90-95% in 2015, 2) increased average yield of Lakatan (from 21.58 MT/ha to 34.52 mt/ha) by 2015,  3) reduced incidence of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) in Lakatan (from 70% to 20%) by 202 , and 4) developed early fruiting dwarf Saba by 2020.
 
The major variety of banana produced in the Philippines (51%) is Cavendish.  It generates 329,648 jobs in the country providing Php42.3B in annual wages. Total investment to the industry is Php82.4B. In 2012, revenue reached Php74.4B.  The industry is threatened by Fusarium wilt (FW) tropical race 4, a disease caused by a soil-borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), which could thrive in the soil for years, causing banana plants to wilt and make the plantation unproductive.
 
The ISP aims to reduce the incidence of FW on Cavendish in Mindanao by 90-95% through the use of resistant varieties, which are market-acceptable and through the application of microbial agents as part of the integrated management of the disease.  Likewise, the pseudo stem of bananas can be a good source of fiber. Hence, an affordable automated decorticating machine will be developed for processing banana and pineapple fibers, to replace the hand stripper, with improved productivity and product quality.
 
The Lakatan variety of banana is a popular dessert in the Philippines, which contributes 10% of total banana production.  It is very susceptible to major diseases such as banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), Sigatoka, and FW.  With the ISP, the incidence of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) in Lakatan is hoped to be reduced from 70% to 20% through the use of BBTV-resistant Lakatan mass produced using shoot-tip culture and through the application of best cultural management practices.
 
The Saba variety is a major cooking-type banana produced in the Philippines which comprises 29% of the total banana production.  It is used in the production of banana chips, a major export product of the Philippines.  In 2010, the Philippines exported 28,084 mt chips/ crackers valued at Php1,816.76M with Vietnam, USA, and China as the major markets.  One of the major concerns of the banana chips industry is the lack of supply.  Thus, the ISP aims to develop a dwarf Saba which can bear fruit earlier at 12-18 months than the traditional Saba at 18-24 months.
 
For mango, ISP outcomes are: 1) increased yield by 57% (from 5.82 MT/ha to 9.11 MT/ha) by 2015, and by 90% (from 5.82 MT/ha to 11.11 MT/ha) by 2020, 2) reduced postharvest losses by 50% (from 40% to 20%) by 2015, and by 65% (from 40% to 14%) by 2020, and 3) enhanced capability of mango growers on Integrated Crop Management (ICM), Postharvest Quality Management (PQM), and Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs).
 
The Philippine ‘Carabao‘ mango ranks 12th in the top world producer and 1.86% share in the world mango production (FAO, 2012). It is the 3rd most important fruit crop in the Philippines based on export volume and value (FAO, 2011). It has established its domestic market as fresh produce and with bright opportunities for the international market both for its fresh or processed forms.  Majority of the processed mangoes are exported as dried (56%), juices and concentrates (39%) and puree (5%) valued at US$242. 
 
For the past years, investments on R and D have been poured in by PCAARRD and other international donors to develop technologies to address production constraints such as incidence of pests and diseases, poor cultural management, and high postharvest losses. The packages of technologies through scientific approaches and adoption by farmers resulted in high yields and good quality fresh produce mangoes.  But in spite of ready packages of technologies, the target to increase yields and produce good quality produce have not been attained.  An impact assessment conducted by the Socio-economic Research Division of PCAARRD revealed that the non-adoption of technologies and limited resources of the farmers are the causal factors. The ISP aims to develop convergence of technologies for adoption through a clustering approach or to be adopted by S and T model farms.
 
Deliverables of the ISPs on tropical fruit
 
Knowing the researchable gaps and the industry outcomes, each ISP defined the deliverables of the programs to meet the needs of the target beneficiaries and geographical locations where the technologies will be adopted. The Tables 6 to 9 summarize the deliverables for each ISP of banana, mango, durian and jackfruit.
 
Government laws for the progress of the fruit sector
 
There are some policies and regulatory protocols which are in place in the country to provide progress of the fruit crops industry and create in roads for growth of the economy and improved productivity. There are two laws that directly gear up the global competiveness and food security of the country, and these are:
 
1. The Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) of 1997 of the Republic Act 8435 seeks the modernization of the agriculture and fisheries sector by allocating budget and institute policy reforms such as land use, finance and marketing, farm to market roads, product standards, research and extension, incentives for agriculture-linked industries and administrative support. The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities, income and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people; and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. In pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership.
 
2. The "High-Value Crops Development Act of 1995, Republic Act 7900" which was declared the policy of the State to accelerate the growth and development of agriculture in general, enhance productivity and incomes of farmers and the rural population, improve investment climate, competencies and efficiency of agribusiness and develop high-value crops as export crops that will significantly augment the foreign exchange earnings of the country, through an all-out promotion of the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of high-value crops in suitable areas of the country.  The State shall be guided by the principles that land has a social function and land ownership has a social responsibility. As such, owners and lessees of agricultural land, being stewards, have the obligation to cultivate the lands they own or lease and make the land economically productive on a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. The State has the right to expropriate lands not utilized for the benefit of the community and the country as a whole.
 
Major agencies responsible for fruit export
 
There are two major departments responsible in the export of fruit crops and other agricultural commodities to address safety and quality of produce.
 
The Department of Agriculture is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the promotion of agricultural and fisheries development and growth. It has two major bureaus, the Bureau of Agricultural and Fisheries Product Standards (BAFPS) and BPI that safeguard the quality and safety of the fruit crops for exports and imports.
 
Another important department is the Department of Trade Industry of the Philippine Government is tasked to expand Philippine trade, industries and investments as the means to generate jobs and raise incomes for Filipinos. It acts as catalyst for intensified private sector activity in order to accelerate and sustain economic growth through comprehensive industrial growth strategy, progressive and socially responsible trade liberalization and deregulation programs and policymaking designed for the expansion and diversification of Philippine trade - both domestic and foreign.
 
BAFPS under the Department of Agriculture was established in December 1997 as provided for by Republic Act No. 8435 (1997) or the Agriculture Fisheries and Modernization Act. Its major duties include formulating and enforcing standards of quality in the processing, preservation, packaging, labeling, importation, exportation, distribution and advertising of fresh and primary agricultural and fisheries products. BAFPS also provides assistance in establishing the scientific basis for food safety, trade standards and codes of practice and harmonizes them with internationally accepted standards and practices.
 
BAFPS also serves as the National Enquiry Point for Codex Alimentarius and other food safety and standards regulatory bodies. It is in charge of monitoring and disseminating information on international developments in food safety.
 
The Plant Quarantine Service (PQS) is a section under the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI). BPI, being a member of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and other international organizations, serves as our National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO).  By virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1433, known as the “Plant Quarantine Decree of 1978”, BPI-PQS was strengthened by adequate updated laws, regulations, resources and facilities to monitor and control the movement of plant pests and diseases. Since then, it aims to protect Philippine Agriculture by preventing the introduction of new pests and its further spread.  The PQS has 13 regional offices nationwide and works on both international and domestic fronts. International quarantine involves imported and exported plants, plant products and potential animal pests.  Any agricultural commodity intended for export are thoroughly inspected, classified and graded prior to the issuance of the phytosanitary certificate to conform to the requirements of the importing country. Similarly, imported commodities undergo verification of documentary requirements, inspection, further examination in the laboratory, treatment if necessary, and may be held under quarantine or subject to destruction if needed. The exporter should comply on the pre-shipment conditions/ requirements stated in the Plant Quarantine Clearance (PQC- Import Permit) that has been issued.
 
Domestic plant quarantine, on the other hand, mainly focuses on the restriction on the movement of infected and/or infested plants and plant parts/products from one locality to another within the country. This is to prevent further spread of indigenous quarantine pests and introduced pests and diseases to a known Pest Free Area.
 
The Bureau of Import Services (BIS) of the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry assists local entrepreneur or foreign enterprise to bring products from overseas into the shores of the Philippines. On the other hand, the Export Marketing Bureau (EMB) provides information and tools to bring in the products of the exporters in the international market. If a foreign business desires to source materials from the Philippines, or a local producer looking for manufacturers who may be in need of the raw materials, EMB's Business Matching Service help to find your perfect partner in business.
 
Key institutions involved in the fruit research program
 
PCAARRD and BAR play important role in the management of research and development programs on fruit crops. These two institutions provide research grants to implementing entities or institutions to generate and deliver technologies needed by the fruit crops industry.  There are identified state universities and colleges, bureaus of the DA, institutes of the DOST which are tasked to conduct basic researches to be disseminated to the fruit growers. The technology transfer modalities and extension activities are usually executed by the local government units, specialized cooperating agencies or government and non government organizations (Appendices 4-7).
 
BPI has its own research center based in Guimaras island working both for technology generation and promotion of mango technologies for adoption in mango production. The package of technologies are designed to meet the requirements of export quality mangoes for USA. Other technologies to meet the deliverables of the ISP on mangoes are implemented by state universities and colleges.
 
The banana has no identified center but specifically for Cavendish variety, the state universities in Mindanao, namely University of Southern Philippines (USeP), University of the Philippines of Mindanao (UPMin), University of Southern Mindanao (USM) in collaboration with the Pilipino Banana Growers Association are conducting researches to address the serious disease of Cavendish banana, particularly the Fusarium wilt race 4.
 
On other banana cultivars which are widely grown in Luzon island of the country, the University of the Philippines Los Ba?os, Cavite State University and others are the major research implementers to address the problems of banana bunchy top virus, genetic improvement, postharvest handling and storage, transport and packaging.
 
For jackfruit and durian, since these two are of regional concerns, the Visayas State University in region VIII and DA region VIII implement both applied and basic researches on jackfruit for adoption by the fruit growers. Durian is well populated in Mindanao, BPI Davao, USeP, UPMin and USM are the key players that address problems on crop production management. 
 
International research partners
 
There are only three international centers or institutes which are responsible for sharing technology to enhance production of fruit in the country; namely the Bioversity International, Taiwan Banana Research Institute (TBRI) and the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR).
 
The Bioversity International continuously provides the technologies and capacitates the researchers or scientists through trainings and participation to conferences. On the other hand, TBRI is instrumental in the sharing of germplasm to address the Fusarium wilt Race 4 problem in Mindanao.
 
The ACIAR provides research grants to key implementing institutions working on the Integrated Crop Management of Mangoes and Value Chain Analysis in Southern Philippines of Mindanao from 2007 to date.
 
CONCLUSION
 
The tropical fruit in the country are so diverse and regarded as economically important particularly bananas and mangoes which are the top dollar earners in the export market. Though these crops are the best bets in terms of global competitiveness, regulatory policies must be strengthened to sustain its status in the world market.  The other minor fruit like durian and jackfruit, which are of regional importance, must be given top priority in terms of funding to elevate its status from domestic crops to export commodities.
 
There are defined deliverables in the research and development programs, however the major institutions providing grants must look into crafting a unified agenda to achieve the common goals which are appropriate for the target clienteles. Moreover, there are many research implementing institutions and the critical mass of seasoned experts are wanting, hence the establishment of a fruit crop center can be designed. 
 
But over all, this paper affirms that status of the fruit crops industry is gaining strong foothold in the Philippine economy but in-depth analysis on the available production and marketing statistics data and technologies must be done to determine its impact on the country as well as to the different fruit crops stakeholders.
 
REFERENCES
 
  • A Guide to Durian Production. 2005. Varieties of Durian. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Training Institute.13 pp. 
  • A Guide to Durian Production. 2008.  Propagation of Durian. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Training Institute. 13 pp. 
  • A Guide to Durian Production. 2008. Improved Cultural Management Practices in Durian. Propagation of Durian. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Training Institute. 25 pp. 
  • A Guide to Durian Production. 2008.  Integrated Pest and Disease Management of Durian. Propagation of Durian. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Training Institute. 21 pp. 
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Fig. 1.  Banana top producing provinces in the Philippines PSA, 2013

 

 

Fig. 2. Banana top producing provinces based on area planted, Philippines, 2009-2013. (PSA, 2013)

 

 

Fig. 3. Per cent distribution by banana variety, Philippines (PSA, 2013)

 

 

 

Fig. 4. Lacatan banana top producing provinces in Philippines (PSA, 2013)

 

 

Fig. 5. Saba banana top producing provinces in the Philippines (PSA, 2013)

 

 

 

Fig.  6. Volume of mango production, area planted and bearing trees,  Philippines, 2009 – 2013.

 

 

Fig. 7.  Developed and adopted plant distribution scheme for banana tissue-cultured plantlets.

 

 

Fig. 8.  Different mango strains/varieties farmgate prices from 2008-2013.

           (Philippine Statistics Authority, 2013)

 

 

Table 1. Drian fruit standard for scion production (Agri Laws/Regulations, 2005)

 

 

Table 2. Seed and seedling standards for durian (Agri Laws/Regulations, 2005)

 

 

DIVERSITY

 

 

Table 3. Different farmgate prices of selected fruit from 2008-20013. (PSA, 2013)

 

 

Table 4. Size classification of mango

 

 

Table 5. Approved disinfestation treatments of mangoes.

Sources:   Johnson et al., 1997; Armstrong, 1994

 

 

Table 6. Deliverables of ISP on banana by 2020. 

 

 

Table 7. Deliverables of ISP on durian by 2020.

 

 

Table 8.  Deliverables of ISP on jackfruit by 2020. 

 

 

 Table 9. Deliverables of ISP on mango by 2020.

 

 

Appendix 1.  Characteristics of different durian cultivars

 

Appendix 2. Summary of origin and characteristics of recommended durian cultivars (The Philippine Recommends, 2000)

 

Appendix 3.  Durian grafting and budding methods

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Appendix 4.  Banana R and D Network of implementers

 

Appendix 5. Durian R and D network of implementers

 

 

Appendix 6.  Jackfruit R and D Network of implementers

 

 

Appendix 7.  Mango R and D Network of implementers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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