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THE STATUS OF THE FRUIT INDUSTRY IN THE PHILIPPINES
 
 
Rene Rafael C. Espino and Marco Rafael C. Espino
Crop Science Cluster
College of Agriculture
University of the Philippines, Los Banos
College, Laguna 4031, Philippines
 
E-mail address:  rrcespino@yahoo.com
 
 
ABSTRACT
 
This paper aims to present a comprehensive overview of the current status of the fruit industry in the Philippines. It describes the major fruit species grown in the country and gives information about their production, hectarage, yield export and import as well as the obstacles faced by industry players and the various potentials to further uplift the industry in the area of research and development as well as domestic and international trade.
 
Keywords: Philippine fruit industry, fruit imports and exports, GAPs, fruit statistics 
 
 
INTRODUCTION
 
The Philippines is an archipelago with a geographical position of 13o north and 122o east. It has a rich diversity of tropical fruit wherein   more than 20 different species are cultivated in the entire archipelago. Production system ranges from backyard to highly integrated operation with the latter catering to the export market. The farms are generally small in size (1-5 ha) with minimal care resulting to low yield.  
 
The major fruit species grown in the country are: a) banana (Musa sp.); b) pineapple (Ananas comosus); c) mango (Mangifera indica); d) papaya (Carica papaya); e) calamondin (Microfortunella microcarpa); f) durian (Durio zibethinus); g) jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus); and h) lanzones (Lansium domesticum).
 
Banana, pineapple and mango are the major fruit export commodities of the country both in fresh and processed forms.
 
Source of information
 
The information used in this paper was generally obtained from the Philippines’ Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), Department of Agriculture- Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA-BAR) and Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Resources Research and Development (DOST-PCARRD).  The data covered the period from 2008-2013.
 
Total production, hectarage, yield, export and import
 
Production and hectarage.  Fig. 1 shows the total production and area planted to various fruit species in the country.  In 2013, the total production reached 12,750,850 MT with a total area of 856,553 hectares. An increasing trend in total production and area had been experienced from 2008-2012. However, by 2013 both had dramatically been reduced due to destruction brought about by the strong typhoon that hit the country particularly the major producing areas in Mindanao.  Overall, the average annual growth rate was 0.26% and 16%, respectively for production and area for the six-year time period.
 
Yield. The average yield per hectare ranged from 14.8MT to 15.21MT from 2008-2013 with an average annual growth rate of 0.57%. A similar trend was observed with that of production and area wherein slight increases in the average yield were experienced from 2008-2012 (14.83 to 15.10 MT/ha) and decreased to 14.89 MT/ha by 2013 (Fig. 2).
 
Export.  Fruit are one of the major exports of the country.  In 2013, the volume of exported fresh fruit reached 3,310,910MT from 2,510,864MT in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 7.98%.  From 2008 to 2010, volume of export had declined by 29%. After which, this had been increasing through 2011 till 2013 by 85.7%.  This was brought about by the improvement of the economic status of the importing countries (Fig. 3).
 
The major export commodities are banana, pineapple, mango and papaya. Fig. 4 shows the volume of the export in each commodity wherein banana accounted for 86.9% of the total volume and pineapple, 12.5%, mango, 0.15%, papaya. 0.15% and others, 0.30%.
 
Import. Fig. 5 shows the total import of fruit by the Philippines from 2008 till 2013.  The highest volume of imports occurred in 2012 reaching 240,477MT while the lowest was in 2008 to 187,265MT. The average annual growth rate was 3.68% during this time period.  This was lower by 46.1% than the annual growth rate of fruit export in the same time period.  Hence, there is a positive balance of trade for this commodity in the country.
 
 
The total import volume in 2013 was 214,800MT.  Apples (27%), mandarins (18%), oranges (8%) and grapes (6%) were the major commodities (Fig. 6).
 
Table 1 shows all numerical data for the total production, area, average yield/ha , volume export and volume of import of fruit in the Philippines.
 
Banana
 
This is the number one fruit commodity in the Philippines both in production and hectarage.  The industry is divided into two distinct sectors namely those for the domestic market and those for the export market.  For the former, the cultivars being grown are ‘Lakatan’, ‘Latundan’, “Bungulan’ and ‘Saba’/’Cardaba’, while for the latter, it is the Cavendish-type cultivars (‘Umalag’, ‘Grand Nain’, ‘Giant Cavendish’, Dwarf Cavendish’, etc).  Furthermore, banana for the domestic market are grown throughout the country in small farms  under minimal care while for the export market, large integrated farms are concentrated in Mindanao where typhoons/strong winds seldomly occur and grown under intensive cultivation. Harvesting occurs throughout the year.  The planting materials utilized are corms/suckers and tissue culture- derived plantlets.  For the suckers/corms, they are obtained from existing farms while for tissue-cultured plantlets, these were obtained from government  and private tissue culture laboratories.
 
Production and hectarage.  Fig. 7 shows the total production and area planted to banana from 2008-2013.  In the first five years, total production had been increasing steadily reaching 9,260,000MT. This was greatly reduced to 8,645,750MT by 2013 due to the strong typhoon that hit some of the growing areas in Mindanao.  The average annual growth rate during this period was -0.03%.   In terms of area planted to banana, the highest was 499,443 hectares in 2010 and then steadily decreased reaching 445,935 ha in 2013.  The average annual growth rate for the area planted to banana was 0.93%.
 
On a regional level, the area devoted to banana varies ranging from 4,932ha in Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) to 88,320ha in Davao Region in 2013.  It is in the latter region where majority of the large farms are situated (Fig.  8).
 
Yield. The yield per hectare obtained from 2008-2013 ranged from 18.22MT (2010) to 20.36MT (2011) with an average of 19.71mt/ha and an average annual growth rate of  - 0.16  from 2008-2013 (Fig. 9).
 
Utilization. Banana fruits are utilized as fresh fruit, for processing, export and  feeds/wastes.  It comprised 46%, 17%, 33% and 4%, respectively of the total production amounting to 8,645,750MT in 2013 (Fig. 10).  The domestic fresh fruit consumption is represented as total net food disposable.
 
Farmgate price.  This includes the prices for the banana cultivars being traded in the domestic market. These are for mature green fruit of ‘Bungulan’, ‘Lakatan’, ‘Latundan’ and ‘Saba’/’Cardaba’.  Fig. 11 shows the average annual farmgate prices of these cultivars from 2008-2013.  During these time period, the price/kg had been increasing steadily with an average annual growth rate of 22.10%, 10.26%, 5.71% and 9.10% for ‘Bungulan,,’Lakatan’, ‘Latundan’ and ‘Saba’/’Cardaba’, respectively.  “Latundan’, which is the most preferred by in the local market, had the highst price followed by ‘Latundan’ which are both consumed as fresh fruit.  ‘Saba’/’Cardaba’ is utilized for cooking, snack food  and processing.   The least preferred cultivar is ’Bungulan’ which is utilized as fresh fruit and making banana cake had the least price.
 
Export.  Banana is the number one agricultural export commodity of the country.  From 2008 to 2013, the volume of export (MT) of fresh fruit grew at an average annual rate of 7.65% reaching the 2,876,947MT in 2013 from 2,192,533MT in 2008. During 2009 and 2010, the volume of export had declined due to the economic crisis that affected the importing countries. Afterwards, this had steadily increased with the recovery of the economies of these improting countries until 2013 (Fig. 12).
 
The major importing countries are Japan (32% of the volume), China (14%), South Korea (13%), United Arab Emirates (13%) , Singapore (6%) , USA (4%) and Iran (4%) in 2013.  Japan is stiil considered as the premium market by the exporters.  The USA is the newest market which was opened a few years ago.  
 
Table 2 presents data for the total production, area planted, average yield/ha, export volume and farm gate price of banana from 2008 to 2013.
 
Pineapple
 
Unlike banana, pineapple production in the country is concentrated in few provinces namely Laguna, Cavite, Camarines Norte, Southern Leyte, Bukidnon, Davao and South Cotabato.  The farms are generally small in size (1-2ha) which caters to the local market except for the farms managed by two multinationals (Del Monte and Dole) situated in Bukidnon, Davao and South Cotabato, both for fresh fruit and processed products.  The cultivars grown are ‘Cayenne’, ‘Queen’/’Formosa’ and ‘Red Spanish’.  The former two cultivars are utilized for fresh fruit and processing while the latter cultivar is for fiber utilized in making pi?a cloth.  Harvesting is done all-year round with peak period during the months of April to June in small farms.  The common planting materials utilized in small farms are suckers and slips while crown areas are managed by mutinational companies.  These planting materials were taken from the previous crop grown by farmers/multinationals.  
 
Production and hectarage.  The total production and area planted to pineapple from 2008-2013 is shown in Fig. 13.  From 2008-2010, production had decreased which afterwards had steadily increased reaching 245,842MT in 2013.  This is translated into an average annual growth rate of 2.20%.  In terms of area planted to this crop, this had flactuated over the six-year period.  However, it had shown an average of annual growth rate of 0.86%  from 58,251ha in 2008 to 60,750ha in 2013.  ‘Cayenne’ is generally planted in the provinces of Laguna and Cavite as well as the areas managed by the multinationals in the provinces of Bukidnon, Davao and South Cotabato.  For ‘Queen’ these are planted in the provinces of Camarines Norte and Southern Leyte while ‘Red Spanish’, this is planted in Panay island particularly in the provinces of Antique and Aklan.
 
On a regional level,  Fig. 14 shows the area planted to pineapple which are concentrated in CALABARZON, (Laguna and Cavite),  Bicol Region (Camarines Norte), Northern Mindanao (Bukidnon), Davao Region (Davao) and SOCCKSARGEN (South Cotabato). The Del Monte and Dole pineapple farms are located in Bukidnon and South Cotabato, respectively where they have their processing plants.   Moreover, their production system is highly intensive and a high degree of mechanization is employed.
 
Yield. The average yield/ha from 2008 to 2013 ranged from 37.05-41.02MT/ha with an average of 38.60MT/ha.  During the same time period, it exhibited an average annual growth rate of 1.38% (Fig. 15).  Generally, higher average yield was obtained in ‘Cayenne’ compared to’Queen’ and ‘Red Spanish’ due to bigger fruit size.
 
Utilization.  Fig. 16 shows the utilization of harvested fruit amounting to 2,458,420 MT in 2013.  These are broken into: a) 41% as total net food disposable; b) 37% for processing; c) 17% for export (fresh fruit); and d) 5%  as feeds/wastes.  For the mutinational companies, fruit are utilized both as fresh fruit for the domestic and export markets and as processing material (canned pineapple in syrup and puree/juice).  The primary cultivar used for processing is ‘Cayenne’.
 
Farmgate price.  This had steadily increased from 2008 to 2013 with an annual avearge growth rate of 2.82%, 7.71% and 3.07% for ‘Queen’, ‘Cayenne’ and Native, respectively.  For ‘Cayenne’, its farmgate price increased from Php 5.02/kg in 2008 to Php 7.08/kg in 2013.  A similar situation can be observed in ‘Queen’ and Native wherein farm gate prices were Php 5.39/kg and Php 6.75/kg in 2008 to Php 6.04/kg and Php 7.64/kg in 2013, respectively (Fig. 17).
 
Export.  Pineapple is exported both in fresh and processed forms.  This is particularly being done by the two multinational companies operating in the country.  Fig. 17 shows the volume of fresh fruit exported by the country from 2008-2013. Just like in banana, the volume of export declined from 2008-2010 and steadily increased from 2011-2013.  Overall, the average annual gowth rate reached 11.33%.  The major markets are Japan (87% of the volume), South Korea (5%), and China (5%).  Aside from fesh fruit, the country is also exporting dried, preserved (in syrup) and puree/juice.
 
All numerical data on production.  Area, average yields and volume of fresh fruit export and farm gate prices of pineapple grown in the Philippines from 2008-2013 is shown in Table 3. 
 
Mango
 
This crop is grown througout the country.  However, areas with distinct wet and dry season are conducive for better productivity.  The cultivars grown are ‘Carabao’, ‘Pico’ and ‘Katchamita’ or popularly known as Indian. The latter cultivar is generally consumed as green mango. The industry is anchored on large backyard trees scattered in the various farms/regions of the country wherein minimal care is being done by farmers.   It is only in the last 10-15 years wherein monocropping had been undertaken in areas greater than five ha.  ‘Carabao’ and its several strains are the most popular cultivar being grown in the country.   It is available in the market all-year round with peak period of harvesting during the months of April and May. Cleft-grafted seedlings are used as planting materials.  These can be both obtained from government and private murseries all over the country. An accreditation/certification  program for asexually propagated planting material produced by private nurseries is being instituted by the Bureau of Plant Industry.
 
Production and hectarage.  Productivity of mango in the country is dependent on the weather pattern experienced in a particular year. Occurrence of ‘El Nino’ provided a  good climatic condition for flowering and subsequent fruit setting and development while  ‘La Nina’ resulted into lower yield due to the destruction of flowers/fruits due to anthracnose infection.  Fig. 19 shows the total production and area devoted to mango production in the country from 2008-2013.  In terms of production, this had fluctuated over the  six-year period with the highest production (884,011MT) in 2008 and the lowest (771,441MT) in 2009.  By 2013, this had reached 816,199MT with an average annual growth rate of -1.52%.  on the other hand, the avearge annual growth rate for the area devoted to mango production exhibited a positive 0.45% with 183,770ha in 2008 to 187,838MT in 2013. The highest area devoted to mango reached 189,437ha in 2010.
 
On a regional level, the major production areas are Central Luzon, Ilocos Region, Davao Region, Zambonga Peninsula and SOCCSKSARGEN (Fig. 20). Complimentary to the harvesting period in the different areas, the availability of fruit all-year round in the domestic market became possible.
 
Yield.  The average yield obtained during this six year period ranged from 4.07MT/ha to 4.81MT/ha with an average of 4.32MT/ha (Fig. 21).  In terms of average annual growth rate, it exhibited a negative trend amounting to -1.71%/annum.  This observation is similar to the total production during this time period since productivity per unit area is a function of the total production achieved during this time period.
 
Utilization.  In 2013,  93% of the total production was used as net food disposable , 1.1% for the export market and 5.9% as feeds/waste.
 
Farmgate price.  Among the different varieties grown in the country,’Carabao’ had the highest price since this is the primary cultivar  for both domestic and export markets.  This ranged  from Php 28.22/kg to Php 29.46/kg with an average  of  Php 28.98/kg.  On the other hand, ‘Katchamita’ had the least with an average farmgate price of Php7.19/kg during this six-year period.  The annual average growth rate is -0.36%, 5.27% and 0.77% for ‘Carabao’, ‘Katchamita’ and ‘Pico’, respectively (Fig. 22).
 
Export.  Mango is another export commodity of the country.  These are in form of fresh fruit, dried, juice/puree and preserved.  Fig. 23 shows the volume of fresh mango exported for the period covering 2008-2013.  From 2008-2012, the volume of exports declined from 20,845MT in 2008 to 18,440 in 2012.  Furthermore, it can be observed that there was a dramatic decrease in fresh fruit export in 2013 by almost 360% amounting to 5,076 MT.  This was attributed to some production problems leading to the decrease in fruit quality.  At the same time, this was compounded by quarantine regulations of the importing countries.  This had led into annual average growth rate of -16.74%. However, 11,429 MT was also exported in form of dried, juice/puree and preserved.
 
The major importing countries are Japan (34.4% of the total volume), Hongkong (27.4%) and  South Korea (25.3%) in 2013.
All the numerical data on total production, area planted, average yield/ha, volume of export and farm gateprices of mango are shown in Table 4.
 
Papaya
 
Papaya is grown in small farms (1-5 ha) with productivity period of 3-4 years.  The major varieties grown are ‘Cavite Special’, ‘Sinta’ and  Solo (yellow and red flesh). ‘Sinta’ is a popular variety being grown by farmers due to its moderate resistance to papaya ringspot which is prevalent in the growing areas in Luzon.  Harvesting is done all-year round.  Seeds is the primary planting material used by farmers.  For ‘Sinta’, this is distributed and marketed by a private seed company.
 
Production and hectarage.  Fig. 24 shows the total production and area planted to papaya in 2008 till 2013.  A decreasing trend in both production and area was exhibited during this period such that the average annual growth rates are negative amounting to -1.81% and 1.80%, respectively.  This is brought about by the occurrence of papaya ringspot in the major growing areas.  From 182,910MT production in 2008, this had decreased to 166,260MT in 2013 while in area, from 9,175 ha in 2008 to 8,377 ha in 2013.
 
On a regional level, the major growing area are SOCCSKSARGEN, Northern Mindano, Western Visayas and Central Luzon in terms of area devoted to this crop (Fig. 25).  For SOCCSKSARGEN and Northern Mindanao areas, these serves the need of the Dole and Del Monte, respectively for ther mixed fruit preparation.  
 
Yield. The average yield (MT/ha) almost remained similar from year to year from 2008-2013.   This ranged from 18.62MT/ha to 19.94MT/ha with an average of 19.41MT/ha.  During this time period, the graph exhibited a U-shape pattern with the lowest average yield (18.62MTt/ha) was obtained in 2011 (Fig. 26). In terms of the average annual growth rate, it amounted to -0.06% which signifies a very minimal decrease in average annual yield of papaya.
 
Utilization.  In 2013, the total production of papaya was 166,260 MT. wherein  91.5% were utilized as net food disposable,  3.0% for export and 5.5% for feed/waste. 
 
Farmgate price.  Fig. 27 shows the annual farmgate prices of four varieties of papaya, namely Hawaiian, Native, ‘Sinta’ and ‘Solo’ from 2008-2013.  Farmgate prices of all the varieties fluctuated during this time period.  However, ‘Solo’, Hawaiian, and ‘Sinta’ exhibited a positive avearge annual growth rate amounting to 22.62%, 8.66% and 0.31%, respectively.  This is expected since total production of papaya in the country had a decreasing trend during this time period.
 
‘Solo’ had the highest farmgate price (Php 14.72/kg, 2013) since this is the type that is preferred in the export market and the most expensive in the domestic market due to its excellent eating quality and shelf life. Large–fruited varieties such as ‘Sinta’  (Php 13.38/kg, 2013) and Hawaiian (Php 6.76/kg, 2013) are preferred in the domestic market and for processing due to its large fruit size.
 
Export.  The volume of export  of fresh fruit papaya form 2008-2013 exhibited a U-shaped pattern with 2,878MT in 2008 and declining to 1,391 MT in 2010  followed with an increased pattern reaching 5,002mt in 2013 (Fig. 28).  This is translated into an average annual growth rate of 23.89%.
 
The main markets for fresh papaya fruit export are Japan and Singapore.  In addition, export of dried papaya mixed or not mixed with other fruits and pickled (“achara”) amounted to 68MT in 2023.
   
Table 5 shows the numerical data for total production, area planted, average yield/ha, farm gate prices and volume of fresh fruit exports of  papaya in the Philippines from 2008-2013.
 
Calamondin
 
Calamondin belongs to the Family Rutaceae and is locally known as “calamansi’.  Its primary usage is for souring food and juice/puree. There is no known varieties of this commoidty. This is available in the market whole-year round with peak harvesting period during the months of July to September.  It is propagated through grafting/budding with ‘Calamandarin’ as roostock.  Planting materials are available in various government and private nurseries. 
 
Production and hectarage.  The total production and area planted to calamondin in the country from 2008-2013 is shown in Fig. 29. 
 
Both production and area had exhibited a decresaiong trend for this six-year period with 199,675MT and 20,956ha in 2013 to 164,050MT and 20,246 ha in 2013, respectively.  The rate of annual decline in production is higher compared to those as manifested by the average annual negative growth rate of -3.83% and -0.68%,  respectively.  This can be attributed to the presence of the greening disease or ”huanglubin’ in most growing areas that led to the decline in yield and subsequently, to the death of the trees.  
   
On a regional level, the main growing areas are MIMAROPA (6,872ha), Central Luzon (1,734ha) and Ilocos Region (1,026ha) in Luzon while in Mindanao, it is in Davao Region (1,797ha), CARAGA (1,412ha) and Zamboanga Peninsula (1,077ha).  Complementation of the production in Luzon with that of Mindanao assures the availability of fresh fruit all-year round (Fig. 30).
 
Yield.  Just like in total production and area, the average yield (MT/ha) had been steadily decreasing over this six-year period from 9.53MT/ha in 2008 to 8.10MT/ha in 2013 (Fig. 31).   This is translated into a negative average annual growth rate of -3.18 which is almost the same magnitude as that of total production (-3.83). 
 
Utilization. Out of the total production of 164,050MT in 2013, 93% of the volume are used as net food disposable while the remaining percentage was considered for export and feed/waste.
 
Farmgate price.  During this six-year period, the annual farmgate price of calamondin had been increasing with the highest price of Php 23.13/kg achieved in 2013. This had declined to PhP 17.73/kg in 2013 which is much higher than the farmgate price of Php 13.28/kg in 2008. This can be possibly attributed to the reduction of supply of the fresh fruit in the market (Fig. 32).
 
Export.  A minimal volume of calamondin (fresh fruit) was exported ranging from 20-35MT  from 2008 to 2013 with an average of 29.5MT/annum. In addition 144MT in form of juice/concentrate were also exported in 2013.  The major markets were Hongkong, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
   
All numerical data on total production, area planted, average yield farmgate price and volume for export (fresh fruit) is shown in Table 6.
 
Durian
 
This is primarily grown in Mindanao, particularly in the Davao Region.  Several varieties are being grown by the farmers, namely ‘Chanee’, ‘Mon thong’, ‘Arancillo’, ‘GD 69’, ‘Puyat’, etc.  Peak harvesting period occurs during the months of September to November.  It is propagated through cleft grafting.  Planting materials are available from both government and private nurseries. 
 
Production and hectarage.  The total production and area planted to durian from 2008 to 2013 is shown in Fig. 33.  Production had been increasing during this six-year period with 51,399MT in 2008 to 91,212MT in 2013.  This is translated into an average annual gowth rate of 15.10%.  On the other hand, a dramatic decrease in area planted to durian was observed in 2013 (15% from the previous year) after a continuing increasing trend from 2008 till 2012 reaching 19,329 ha (Fig. 33).   This can be attributed to the attack of root rot organism, Phytophtora sp. resulting in the death of trees. This had resulted in the negative average annual growth rate amounting to -2.04%.  
 
As earlier mentioned, Mindanao is the primary growing area for durian (Fig. 34). The three major regions where durain is being grown are Davao Region (11,540ha), SOCCSKSARGEN (1,930ha) and Northern Mindanao (1,425ha). These areas have the favorable soil and climatic condition for excellent growth and developemnt of durian.
 
Yield.  The average yield of durian ranged from 2.80MT/ha to 5.57MT/ha with an average of 3.83MT/ha/yr during this six-year period.  This is represented by an average annual growth rate of 17.71% reaching 5.57MT/yr in 2013 (Fig. 35). This resulted in the rapid increase in total production even though the area cultivated had a modest increase.  Much more in 2013 wherein, total production had increased even though there was a decline of 15% in the area devoted to this commodity.
 
Utilization.  Out of the total production of 91,212MT in 2013, 94% are utilized as net food disposable while the remaining 6% were for export and feed./waste.  A total of 13MT of fresh fruit was exported in 2013.
 
Farmgate price. Durian is one of the prized fruit in the country. Fig. 36 shows the annual average prize of durian in the country.  Due to increasing production, the average farmgate price had declined from Php 32.82/kg in 2008 to Php 23.95/kg in 2013.  This amounted to an avearge annual growth rate of  - 4.47%.  
 
All the numerical data for total production, area planted, average yield/ha, and annual farmgate price of durian is exhibited in Table 7.
 
Jackfruit
 
 This is generally grown as a backyard crop by farmers.  Several varieties had been recommended for planting by the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC)  namely ‘EVIARC Sweet’,’Cervantes Gold’, ‘Elondo’, ‘Sinapelo’, ‘Torres’, ‘Mabini’, etc.  This is harvested all-year round with peak period during the months of April and May.  It is propagated either by seed or cleft grafting.  Planting materials are available in selected government  and private nurseries. The fruit are generally used for food and processed into preserved in syrup.  Immature fruit are also utilized as vegetable.
 
Production and hectarage.  Fig. 37 shows the total production and area planted to jackfruit from 2008 to 2013.  Generally, total production had declined during the six-year period from 51,714MT in 2008 to 46,080MT in 2013. This is translated into a negative average annual growth rate of -2.27%.   For the area planted, there was minimal increase in hectarage from 14,419 ha in 2008 to 14,526ha in 2013 with an average annual growth rate of 0.15%.  The decline in the total production can be attributed to the infestation of fruif fly that resulted in fruit rotting/dropping.
 
On the regional level, the main growing areas are Western Visayas (1,813ha), Zambonga Peninsula (1,769ha), Bicol Region (1,668ha), Northern Mindanao (1,559ha) and CALABARZON (1,557ha) (Fig. 38).  
 
Yield. The average yield (MT/ha) was slightly declining from 3.59MT/ha in 2008 to 3.17MT/ha in 2013 at an average annual rate of 2.45%.  This is attributed to the declining total production since the area planted had not dramatically increased during this time period (Fig. 39).
 
Farmgate price.  The framgate price of jackfruit had increased slightly during the six-year period from Php 12.36/kg in 2008 to Php 12.47/kg in 2013.  The highest price was Php 13.49/kg which occurred in 2010 with the lowest at Php 11.96 in 2012.  Overall, the average price for this six-year period was Php 12.61/kg.  This represents an average annual growth rate of 0.33% (Fig. 40).
 
All numerical data on total production, area planted, average yield/ha and average annual farm gate price of jackfruit grown in the Philippines is shown in Table 8. 
 
Lanzones
 
This commodity is grown as an intercrop under coconut since it requires a certain degree of shading for proper growth and development.  The varieties planted by farmers are: a) Paete; b) Duku;  and c) Long kong.  This is propagated by grafting/budding.  Planting materials are available  on both governement and private nurseries.  The fruit are generally eaten. 
 
Production and hectarage. For the six-year period, data exhibited extensive fluctuation on the volume of production.  In 2008, 2011 and 2012, the volume of production reached 7,407MT, 4,256MT and 4,190MT, respectively while for 2009, 2010 and 2013, this had increased several fold with 15,341MT, 49,500MT and 35,207MT, respectively.  In terms of area, this had not changed very much during this time period (Fig. 41).  This fluctuating volume of production can be attributed to the ways that farmers do not provide plants with proper cultural management especially fertilzation and pest control.  Hence, the intervening period between the low and high yield represents the time for recovery of the plants.
 
On the regional level, Fig. 42 shows the distribution of areas/regions planted to lanzones in 2013.  The major regions are CALABARZON (4,423 ha) in Luzon and the rest are in Mindanao in Northern Mindanao (3,341 ha), Davao Region (2,144 ha), Zambonga Peninsula (1,965ha) and SOCCSKSARGEN (1,298 ha).
 
Yield. The annual average yield (MT/ha) also fluctuated from a low of 0.21MT/ha in 2011 to as high as 2.4MT/ha in 2010 since this is a function of the total production and at the area planted for this commodity (Fig. 43).  During the six-year period, the average yield was 1.03MT/ha/yr.
 
All numerical data on total production, area planted, and average yield/ha of lanzones grown in the Philippines is shown in Appendix Table 9. 
 
Dragon fruit, guava and passion fruit 
 
These fruit species are grown as a backyard crop in the country. Dragon fruit is becoming popular among growers. They prefer either the red- or white-flesh variety.  Farms (1-5ha) are starting to be established in the different regions of the country.  The total production, area planted and annual average yield for these fruit species cover the period from 2008-2012 is shown below:
 
For dragon fruit and passion fruit, an increasing trend  in terms of total production and area planted was observed from 2008-2012 while for guava, it exhibited a decreasing trend. However, there was a continuous decline in the annual average yield in dragon fruit from 5.31MT/ha in 2008 to 1.40MT/ha in 2013 which amounted to a reduction of 27.84% /annum.  
 
The average annual yield of guava ranged from 1.99MT/ha to 2.2MT/ha with the highest occuring in 2010.  During the six-year time period, the mean yield amounted to 1.99MT/ha.  In passion fruit, the average annual yield ranged from 2.25MT/ha to 10.34MT/ha with a mean yield of 4.56MT/ha.
 
NATIONAL FRUIT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM
   
The research and development efforts on agricultural crops are primarily orchestrated by two agencies, namely the Department of Agriculture (DA) and Department of Science and Technology (DOST).  Under the DA, there are three agencies namely; a) Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA-BAR); b) High Value Commercial Crops Development Program (DA-HVCDP); and c) DA-Biotechnology Program.  For the DOST, there are two agencies which are responsible for R&D on agri. crops: a)  Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Philippine Council for Advanced Science and Technology Research and Development (PCASTRD).  These agencies are responsible for the coordination of all research and development efforts on fruit.  Furthermore, they also set the necessary priority areas/discipline for each fruit species and provide the necessary funding support to researchers in the country on a competitive level.
   
The major thrust/discipline involves: a) increasing production efficiency; b) development of new varieties, DNA fingerprinting, and genetic resources collection, characterization and conservation; c) improvement of cultural management practices e.g. fertilization, pest management, pruning, etc; d) planting materials production and certification; e) improvement of postharvest handling, processing and product standard; f) good agricultural practices and product traceability/safety; g) technology commercialization and adoption; and h) market development and promotion for export. In addition, the research and development program in fruit is commodity-based depending on the economic importance of the fruit species and the necessary research and development intervention for the advancement of a particular commodity.  For DOST-PCAARRD, the identified crops are banana, mango, jackfruit, papaya and durian under their industry strategic science and technology plan (ISP) priority areas while for DA-BAR and DA-Biotechnology Program, similar fruit species are given priority as well as citrus (pummelo and calamondin).
   
There are many agencies/organizations that conduct various research and development efforts in the country.  These are: a) DA-attached agencies such as the Bureau of Plant Industry with its centers (Mango National Research and Development Center, Baguio National Crop Research and Development Center (citrus) and Davao National Crop Research and Development Center (banana, durian, pomelo, mangosteen, etc); the Bureau of Agriculture and Fishery Product Standard (BAFPS) and the DA-Regional Integrated Agricultural Research Centers which are situated in every region of the country; b) Industrial Technology Development Institute, a DOST-attached agency; c) state colleges and universities  e.g. University of the Philippines, Los Ba?os (UPLB), University of the Philippines, Visayas (UPV), University of the Philippines, Mindanao (UPM), Central Luzon University (CLSU), Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU), Isabela State University (ISU); Nueva Vizcaya State University (NVSU), Ramon Magsaysay Technological University (RMTU), Pangasinan State University (PSU), Visayas State University (VSU), University of Southern Mindanao (USM), University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP), Sultan Kudarat State University (SKSU),  Quirino State College (QSC), Pampanga Agricultural College (PAC) and Tarlac College of Agriculture (TCA); and c) private research organizations  particularly those that are engaged in the production, processing and marketing  of fruit both for domestic and international markets.  At present, there is an on-going collaborative research and development project with Biodiversity International for Fusarium wilt in banana particularly on race 4.
   
Aside from a teaching institution, UPLB is the major research and development institution for agricultural crops including fruit.  This is primarily through the College of Agriculture with its different clusters namely Crop Science Cluster, Crop Protection Cluster, Agricultural Systems Cluster and Food Science Cluster.  Within the Crop Science Cluster, it includes the Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB), the Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center (PHTRC) and the National Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory (NPGRL).   In addition, The National Institutes of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH) is also conducting research and development efforts on biofertilizers and value-adding on waste from processing of fruit. 
    
CONCLUSION
    
The fruit industry of the Philippines contributes considerably to the economy of the country.  The leading eight species grown in the country are banana, pineapple, mango, papaya, calamondin, durian, jackfruit and lanzones based on volume of production.  These are available all-year round in the market.  Banana, pineapple and mango are the major export commodities of the country.
    With the opening of the ASEAN Common Market in 2015, the industry faces a big challenge to provide a safe product at competitive prices.   This can only be achieved through the integration of the production and marketing for each fruit species.  Furthermore, productivity and/or areas of production should be increased in order to attain the economy of scale to expand and/or open new markets abroad.  Moreover, there is need to enhance the extension services provided by the different government agencies in order to efficiently transfer new technologies to growers to enhance their production and marketing efficiency.  Nowadays product standard and safety are major concerns in both domestic and export markets such that application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) should be strongly pursued by the growers as well as its subsequent product certification. 
    Research and development activities in fruit are generally fragmented and lack continuity.    Most often, it is reactionary response to a problem of a particular commodity.  This is brought about by the limited funds invested by government on these efforts in the country.  Hence, there is a need for the government to increase its investment to a level of 1-2% of the total contribution of the industry to the economy of the country.  This will ensure the proper support to develop the necessary manpower complement needed as well as provide continuity on the research and development programs for each commodity.
    
   REFERENCES
    
  • Bureau of Agricultural Research.  2014. On-going and completed R&D projects on fruits.   BAR. Quezon City.
  • Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.  2014.  CROPSTAT.  www.bas.gov.ph
  • _____________________________________. 2014.  Foreign Trade Statistics.  www.bas.gov.ph
  • Philippine Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development Council.  2014.  Various R&D fruit projects from 2008-present.  PCAARRD.  Los Banos, Laguna.
  •  

Fig. 1. Total production (MT) and area planted to various fruit species in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 2. Average yield per hectare (MT) of various fruit grown in the Philippines. 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 3.  Total volume of export (MT) of fresh fruit from the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 4.  Total volume (MT) of export of fruit from the Philippines, 2013 by commodity (BAS, 2014). 

 

 

Fig. 5.  Total volume (MT) of imports of fruit by the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 6.   Total volume of imports of fruits by the Philippines, 2013, by commodity (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 7.  Total production (MT) and area planted to banana in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 8.  Area (ha) planted to banana in the Philippines, by region, 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 9. Average yield (MT/ha) of banana in the Philippines, 2018-2013 (BAS, 2004).

 

 

Fig. 10.  Utilization of the banana (MT) produced in the Philippines, by usage, 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 11.  Farmgate price (PhP/kg) of the bananas in the Philippines, by cultivar 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig.  12.  Volume (MT) of fresh fruit export of banana from the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 13.  Volume of production (MT) and area planted (ha) to pineapple in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 14.  Area (ha) planted to pineapple in the Philippines, by region 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 15.  Average yield (MT/ha) of pineapple grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

 

Fig. 16.  Utilization of harvested pineapple fruits grown in the Philippines, 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

 

Fig. 17.  Farm gate prices of pineapple grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

 

Fig. 18.  Volume of fresh fruit export of pineapple from the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 19.  Total production (MT) and area (ha) devoted to mango in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 20.  Area  (ha) planted to mango in the Philippines, by region, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 21.  Average yield (MT/ha) of mango grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 22.  Average farmgate price of different cultivars of mango grown in the Philippines. 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 23.  Volume of export of fresh fruit of mango from the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 24.  Total production and area planted to papaya in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014). 

 

 

Fig. 25.  Area (ha) planted to papaya in the Philippines, by region, 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 26.  Average yield (mt/ha) of papaya grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
Fig.  27.  Average farmgate prices (PhP/kg) of different varieties of papaya grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 28.  Volume of export of fresh fruit of papaya from the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 29. Total production (MT) and area (ha) planted to calamondin in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 30.  Production areas (ha) of calamondin in the Philippines, by region, 2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 31.  Average yield (MT/ha) of calamondin grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 32. Average farmgate price (Php/kg) of calamondin in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 33.  Total production (MT) and area (ha) planted to durian in the Philippines,2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 34.  Area (ha) planted to durian in the Philippines, by region 2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 35.  Average  yield (MT/ha) of durian grown in te Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 

Fig. 36.  Average farmgate price (Php/kg) of durian in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 37. Total production and area planted to jackfruit in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 38.  Area (ha) planted to jackfruit in the Philippines, by region 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 39.  Average yield (MT/ha) of jackfruit grown in the Philippines, 2008- 2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 40.  Average farmgate price (PhP/kg) of jackfruit in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).

 

 

Fig. 41. Total production (MT) and area planted to lanzones in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS 2014).
 
 
 
 
Fig. 42.  Areas (ha) planted to lanzones in the Philippines, by region 2013 (BAS 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 43.  Average yield (MT/ha) of lanzones grown in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
Table 1. Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), volume of export (MT), volume of import (MT) and average growth rate (%) of fruit in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
Table 2. Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), volume of export (MT), farm gate price (Php/kg) and average growth rate (%)of banana in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Table 3. Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), volume of export (MT), farm gate price (Php/kg) and average growth rate of pineapple in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
Table 4. Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), volume of export (MT), farm gate price (Php/kg) and average growth rate of mango (Mangifera indica) in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
Table 5. Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), volume of export (MT), farm gate price (Php/kg) and average growth rate of papaya in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
Table 6.  Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), volume of export (MT), farmgate price (Php/kg) and average growth rate of calamondin in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
Table 7.  Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), farmgate price (Php/kg) and average growth rate of durian (Durio zibethinus) in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
Table 8.  Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT), farm gate price (Php/kg) and average growth rateof jackfruit in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
Table 9.  Total production (MT), area (ha), average yield/ha (MT) and average growth rate of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) in the Philippines, 2008-2013 (BAS, 2014).
 
 
 
 
 
Data obained from Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), 2014.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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