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OVERVIEW OF FRUIT PRODUCTION, MARKETING, 
AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM IN INDONESIA
 
 
Mohamed Iqbal Rafani 
Indonesian Center for Agricultural Socio Economic and Policy Studies (ICASEPS)
Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD)
Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture
Jalan Ahmad Yani 70, Bogor 16161, Indonesia
 
E-mail: iqbalrafani@yahoo.com and iqbalrafani@gmail.com
 
 
ABSTRACT
 
This study aims to identify the selected fruit production and marketing, discuss the fruit research and development (R&D) system, and address the policies on fruit in Indonesia. Eight major fruit were selected based on their potential in the country in line with the national priority set by the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture and the concern of FFTC. They are: (1) banana; (2) citrus; (3) papaya; (4) mango; (5) snake fruit; (6) mangosteen; (7) rambutan; and (8) durian. Among the major fruit, top four fruit were selected, specifically: (1) banana; (2) citrus; (3) papaya; and (4) mango. During 2008 to 2013, the average production of top eight fruit amounted to 13,445,552 tons from the average area of about 567,903 hectares. During the same period, the average consumption of these fruit was 51.66 kilograms per capita annually. In addition, the proportion of top eight fruit trade during 2002-2013 was 20% (export) and 80% (import). The Indonesian fruit R&D focuses on three categories, namely: (1) priority fruit (citrus, banana, mango, mangosteen, and durian); (2) superior fruit (papaya, snake fruit, pineapple, apple, and grape); and (3) prospective fruit (melon, passion fruit, guava, persimmon, rambutan, avocado, and longan). Essentially, the fruit policy is implemented under Law No. 13/2010 governing Horticulture in Indonesia.
      
Keywords: fruit, production, marketing, R&D, policy, Indonesia
 
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Indonesia has abundant natural resources and a range of biodiversity including horticulture in which they must be maintained, utilized, and preserve sustainably. The biodiversity is shown in the form of fruit crops, vegetable crops, medicinal plants, ormanental plants, aquatic plants, etc. which have food and aesthetic value.  Fruit, in particular, is a group of horticultural plant species that can be consumed in both of fresh or processed forms.  This group of crops is stated in the Indonesian Horticultural Law No. 13/2010 in which it is a part of horticulture along with vegetables, vegetable ingredients, and floriculture, including fungi, algae, and aquatic plants that serve as a vegetable, plant-based ingredients, and/or aesthetic materials.
   
The government of Indonesia (GoI) through the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) has decided to include 39 national priority commodity-based agricultural sub-sectors. Fruit, in particular, includes five commodities, namely: (1) banana; (2) mango; (3) citrus; (4) mangosteen; and (5) durian (Appendix 1).  On the other hand, the MoA specifically targeted 60 fruit to be developed (Appendix 2).  Hence, the overview on fruit production and research and development (R&D) system is strategically carried out in the country.  
 
Objectives
 
The general objective of the study is to present an overview the fruit production and R&D system in Indonesia. The specific objectives of this study are as follows: (1) identify selected fruit production and marketing in Indonesia; (2) discuss the fruit R&D system in Indonesia; and (3) address the policies on fruit in Indonesia.  
 
 
METHODOLOGY
 
Data sources
 
The primary sources of data and information were the respective institutions of horticultural sub-sector in Indonesia, particularly those related to fruit. They are the Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture (IDGH), Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD), Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development (ICHORD), Indonesian Center for Agricultural Data and Information System (ICADIS), Indonesian Directorate General of Processing and Marketing for Agricultural Products (IDGPMAP), and Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (ITFRI). These institutions are under the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA). Other sources are the Indonesian Directorate of Agricultural and Forestry Products Export (IDAFPE) of Indonesian Ministry of Trade (MoT), Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies-Bogor Agricultural University (PKHT-IPB), and relevant stakeholders of the fruit industry in the country.  
 
Data collection
 
This study covers the top eight fruit in Indonesia. They were selected based on their potential in the country in line with the national priority set by the Indonesian MoA (including R&D). Hence, the top eight fruit comprise of the following: (1) banana; (2) citrus; (3) papaya; (4) mango; (5) snake fruit; (6) mangosteen; (7) rambutan; and (8) durian. In addition, top four fruit were selected from the top eight fruit. They are: (1) banana; (2) citrus; (3) papaya; and (4) mango. Table 1 shows the type selected fruit in Indonesia.  
 
 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 
Production and marketing
 
Fruit growers
 
There is no availability of official data on fruit grower in Indonesia. The agricultural growers are merely recorded based on sub-sectors (food crops, horticulture, estate crops, and livestock) officially. Table 2 shows the number of agricultural grower in Indonesia in the last four years (2008-2012). 
 
It was noted that the average number of agricultural growers during 2008 to 2012 was about 38.6 million households. The proportion of horticultural growers including fruit growers was only 7.7% (Fig. 1). 
 
Smallholder fruit growers
 
The Indonesian Law No. 19/2013 on the protection and empowerment of farmers categorizes smallholders as farmers who operate agricultural land size with less than 0.5 hectare per household on average. According to the Indonesian Agricultural Census (2013), the number of smallholders was recorded as 14.25 million households. As compared to the Indonesian Agricultural Census conducted in 2003, the number of smallholders was 19.02 million households. This indicates that the number of agricultural smallholders in Indonesia decreased by about 25.07 percent during the last ten-years (2003-2013).  
   
Table 3 presents the number of smallholders in Indonesia based on the regional Agricultural Census of 2003 and 2013. The highest number of smallholders was in Java region, which is about 70% from the total number of national smallholders.  
 
Major growing areas of top eight fruit
 
Indonesia consists of 17,504 islands with a total land area of about 1,904,569 square kilometers. The country consists of 34 provinces, 414 regencies, and 97 municipalities. Fruit can be grown all over the country from rural to urban areas across the administrative government levels. Each farmer mostly possesses a small-scale farm unit in house yard or in the farm (Dimyati et al. 2008). However, only some areas are known as center for fruit production (major growing areas). The number of major growing areas of the top eight fruit in Indonesia is shown in Table 4 while detail data is presented in Appendix 3 up to Appendix 10.  
 
Major forms and sources of planting materials of top eight fruit
 
The major forms and sources of planting materials of the top eight fruit in Indonesia are presented in Table 5. It comprises of specific forms (suckers, seedlings, grafted, layered, budded, etc.) with several sources (rootstocks, tissue culture, etc.). 
 
Fruit production area
 
In Indonesia, fruit are generally grown in scattered areas from backyard to dryland. Therefore, data on fruit production area are only available in the form of fruit harvested area. Figure 2 shows that the average harvested area of common fruit in Indonesia from 2008 to 2013 was about 837,022 hectares in which its growth rate was negative namely -0.03% per year. Meanwhile, the harvested area of top eight fruit was 567,903 hectares (Table 6) with the growth rate of about 2.22% per year. It was noted that the fruit production area decreased significantly in 2010, especially mango (see Appendix 11). 
 
Fruit production
 
The production of common fruit and the top eight fruit in Indonesia are presented in Figure 3 and Table 7, while detailed data is shown in Appendix 12. It reveals that during 2008 to 2013, the average production of common fruit and the top eight fruit were 19,433,861 tons and 13,445,552 tons, respectively. The respective growth rates of common fruit and top eight fruit were about 0.00% per year and 4.77% per year. Due to decreasing harvested area in 2010, the production in the same period also declined considerably.
 
Fruit productivity
 
It is noted that there are no official data on fruit productivity available in Indonesia.  Consequently, the fruit productivity is calculated based on harvested area and its production. Since fruit are growing in the scattered areas, this productivity calculation might tend to be over or under estimated. The productivity of each type of common fruit in Indonesia from 2008 to 2013 is presented in Appendix 13. The productivity of the top eight fruit can be seen in Table 8. 
 
In order to obtain the accurate data on fruit productivity, particularly the top eight fruit, personal communication had been carried out with fruit experts. The comparison result of official data and the opinion of experts regarding the average productivity of the top eight fruit in Indonesia are presented in Table 9. It is noted that the opinion of fruit experts was based on farmer practices (not on experimental results). 
 
Harvesting months of top eight fruit 
 
It is widely believed that fruit in Indonesia can be harvested either seasonally or regardless of the season (whole year). Among the top eight fruit, two fruit (banana and papaya) are harvested whole year-round, while the rest are harvested during certain months of the year (Table 10).
 
Fruit processing
 
Fruit processing data in Indonesia are not available in detail, except for the number of fruit and vegetable industries (Table 11). This number was classified based on KLBI (Klasifikasi Baku Lapangan Usaha Indonesia/Indonesian Standard Industrial Classification) Codes. It refers to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), ASEAN Common Industrial Classification (ACIC), and East Asia Manufacturing Statistics (EAMS). 
   
Based on this standard, the highest number of fruit and vegetable industries was categorized as pulping of fruit and vegetables. Meanwhile the highest extent of growth rate was drying fruit and vegetables, namely 62.50% per year during 2008 to 2010. 
   
Fresh fruit consumption
 
Fruit plant is one of the horticultural plant species which can be wholly or partly consumed in its fresh condition or after being processed (GoI, 2010). The major fruit consumed by Indonesians are banana, rambutan, citrus, papaya, lanzones, durian, snake fruit, and mango (Poerwanto et al. 2006). In the period 2008 to 2013, the common fresh fruit consumption in Indonesia (2008-2013) on average is about 68.50 kilograms per capita per year (Fig. 4). Within this period, the growth rate of fresh consumption was about 4.16% per year. On the other hand, the consumption of fresh top eight fruit was about 51.66 kilograms per year (Table 12) with the growth rate of about 4.87% annually. Detailed data is presented in Appendix 14.    
 
The per capita fruit consumption in Indonesia was still lower than that of global fruit consumption, namely 64.05 kilogram per capita per year vs. 72.35 kilogram per capita per year. The fruit consumption of this country was higher than that of Malaysia but it was lower comparing to the Philippines and Thailand (Fig. 5). 
 
Farmgate values of top eight fruit
 
The average farmgate values of the top eight fruit are shown in Figure 6. Durian and papaya were recorded as the highest and the lowest prices among the top eight fruit in the country. All unit prices were in IDR per kilogram, except for durian (IDR/unit). Detail data can be seen in Appendix 16.
 
Top eight fruit exports
 
This part focuses on the destination and proportion of Indonesian fresh top eight fruit export based on data availability over the last two years (2012 to 2013, Appendix 16). As an illustration, the destination and proportion of Indonesian top eight fresh fruit export based on volume in 2013 are presented in Table 13. It is noted the top eight fresh fruit of Indonesia were primarily exported to China, Middle East, and ASEAN countries. 
 
Fruit import
 
Fruit export focuses on fresh fruit covering its volume, value, and origin from 2012 to 2013. In 2013, total volume and value of imported top eight fruit amounted to 101,897,628 kilograms and US$ 125,671,045 about 20% from the total imported fruit in the same year. It is noted that banana ranked the highest among imported top eight fruit. The summary and detailed data of fruit imports in Indonesia are presented in Table 14 and Appendix 17.  
 
Aside from the top eight fruit, Indonesia also imports some other fruit particularly those which are not grown suitably in the country. Among others, they are apple, grape, kiwifruit, pear, and palm fruit which can be categorized as prominent imported fruit (Table 14). Apple, grape, kiwifruit, and pear are commonly consumed in urban areas. Meanwhile, palm fruit is favorably consumed by Muslims especially during the fasting month (Ramadan). Total volume and value of these five fruit in 2013 were respectively recorded, namely 328,426,720 kilograms and US$ 432,342,497. In other words, the proportion of volume and value of these imported fruit was about 67% from the total volume and value of imported fruit of the country.    
 
National fruit research and development system
 
Major government agencies responsible for the fruit sector development 
 
The major agencies responsible for the fruit sector development in Indonesia are the Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture (IDGH) and the Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD). Both institutions are under the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) as presented in Appendix 18. The former has the main task in formulating and implementing the policy and technical standard of horticulture. Meanwhile, the latter has the main task of accelerating the agricultural technology transfer, supporting the agricultural development, and optimizing the agricultural resources in line with research and development (R&D). Thus, the institutional substance of IDGH and IAARD is associated with structural and functional tasks, respectively. The organizational structures of IDGH and IAARD are presented in Appendix 19 and Appendix 20. 
   
The fruit sector development under the IDGH is managed by the Indonesian Directorate of Fruit Production and Postharvest (IDFPP). The IDGH has representative offices at provincial and regency/municipality levels so called Dinas which are independently or jointly organized with other sub-sectors either food crops or estate crops or livestock. It depends on the extent of horticultural potency in the respective area. The main tasks of the IDFPP in particular, are preparing, formulating, organizing, implementing, and evaluating the policies, norms, standard, procedure, criteria, and guidance of fruit production and postharvest (Appendix 21). 
   
On the other hand, the fruit R&D is carried out by the Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development (ICHORD), particularly the Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (ITFRI) and the Indonesian Citrus and Sub-tropical Fruit Research Institute (ICSFRI). Organizationally, each institution has specific related main task. First, the main task of ICHORD is to conduct research and development producing high and strategic technology of horticulture. Second, the main task of ITFRI is to carry out research and development of fruit starting from breeding and cultivation up to pest and disease control. Third, the main task of ICSFRI is similar to ITFRI but it focuses on fruit and other sub-tropical fruit. Each research institute has research stations in certain areas. The ITFRI manages six research stations, namely two in Sumatra, one in West Java, and three in East Java. Meanwhile, the ICSFRI organized five research stations which are entirely located in East Java.   
 
Policy direction or promotion programs on the fruit sector
 
The policy direction or promotion programs on the fruit sector are covered in the Strategic Plan of Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture (IDGH) 2010-2014. It includes: (1) main target and strategic goal; (2) policy direction, strategy, action plan, and operational step; and (3) program and activity. The main target of horticultural development in Indonesia is increasing the production, productivity, and quality of horticultural products toward improving the food diversification, value added, competitiveness, and welfare of farmers. 
Based on the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture Decision Letter No. 511/2006, the IDGH is mandated to develop 323 horticultural commodities including 60 fruit commodities. Fruit is grouped into three categories and subsequently classified into four classifications (Table 16).
 
The strategic goal of fruit development in Indonesia is related to the following aspects, namely: (1) production target; and (2) good seed/seedling availability. Hence, there is a need to achieve this strategic goal through implementing the policy direction, strategy, action plan, and operational step (Table 17).  
 
Overall, the development of fruit as a part of horticulture sub-sector in Indonesia is organized under some regulations provided by the Government of Indonesia (GoI). It is noted that there are three prominent regulations related to horticulture including fruit development in the country. They are: (1) Indonesian Law No. 13/2010 governing Horticulture; (2) Indonesian Agriculture Minister Regulation No. 86/2013 concerning Import Recommendation of Horticulture Products (RIPH); and (3) Indonesian Agriculture Minister Regulation No. 109/2014 issued on Specific Qualifications, Skills, and Abilities of Foreign Horticulture Human Resources. The summary of these regulations is presented in Box 1, Box 2, and Box 3. 
 
 
 
Box 1
Indonesian Law No. 13/2010 governing Horticulture
 
Substantially, this Law governs to develop horticulture sub-sector in the country. Specifically, it is aimed at: (1) utilizing and managing the horticultural resources optimally, accountably, and sustainably; (2) fulfilling the needs, desires, tastes, aesthetics, and cultures of horticultural products and services; (3) increasing the  production, productivity, quality, value added, competitiveness, and market share of horticultural products; (4) enhancing the consumption of horticultural products and the utilization of services; (5) providing employment and business opportunities; (6) setting up the protection to horticultural farmers, businesses, and consumers nationally; (7) expanding the sources of foreign exchange; and (8) improving the health, welfare, and prosperity of people.
The implementation of this Law is based on following principles, namely: (1) sovereignty; (2) self-reliance; (3) usefulness; (4) integration; (5) togetherness (collective); (7) sustainability; (8) efficiency in justice; (9) environmental preservation; and (10) local wisdom. On the other hand, the implementation scope of this Law includes: (1) planning; (2) utilization and development of resources; (3) development of horticulture; (4) distribution, trade, marketing, and consumption; (5) financing, guarantees, and investments; (6) information systems; (7) research and development; (8) empowerment; (9) institutional aspects; (10) supervision; and (11) public participation. 
 
 
Box 2
Indonesian Agriculture Minister Regulation No. 86/2013 
concerning Import Recommendation of Horticulture Products (RIPH)
 
Fundamentally, this Regulation is intended to be the legal basis for issuing RIPH as a requirement for the issuance of import approval. It is also aimed at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of managing the import of horticulture products. Import of horticulture products can be conducted by importer after obtaining import approval by the Minister of Trade or appointed official. It can be conducted prior to harvest season, during harvest season and after harvest season within a certain time period. 
Horticulture products that be assigned RIPH includes fresh horticulture products for consumption, fresh from industrial raw materials, processed for industrial raw materials, and processed for consumption which must meet food safety requirements. The complete recommendation criteria of imported horticulture products are technically stipulated in this Regulation.   
Under this Regulation, the reference price system is implemented to control import of horticulture products by determining a reference threshold price of the corresponding commodities, instead of setting a quota. The reference price is set by the Indonesian Ministry of Trade – based on recommendation of the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture – which, if exceeded, triggers the issuance of import recommendation and the opening of imports. The market will remain open until the price falls below the reference price. 
It is noted that registered importers of horticulture products must import 80 percent of the total allocation during the specified import period (January-June or July-December). This regulation will mean that horticulture products import will only be allowed when domestic prices are 15 percent higher than a parity price to be set by government.    
 
 
Box 3
Indonesian Agriculture Minister Regulation No. 109/2014 issued on 
Specific Qualifications, Skills, and Abilities of Foreign Horticulture Human Resources
 
Specifically, this regulation is intended as a basis for ensuring the employment of foreign human resources (workers) in accordance with certain qualifications, skills, and abilities in the field of horticulture. In other words, the Regulation is a guideline for horticulture businesses and their related associations for employing foreign workers whose qualifications, skills, and abilities are required to fill certain positions in the horticulture business sector.
The scope of this Regulation includes horticulture business sector, qualifications, skills, and abilities as well as development and supervision. The horticulture business sector includes: (1) seed/seedling; (2) cultivation; (3) harvest and post-harvest; (4) processing; (5) distribution, trade, and marketing; (6) research; and (7) agro tourism. As a result, positions that are open for foreign workers under this Regulation are: (1) international marketing specialist; (2) leading experts on breeding for vegetable and ornamental crops; (3) in-vitro seed propagation specialist; (4) horticulture product handling specialist; (5) horticulture machine engineering specialist; (6) horticulture organic farming specialist; (7) horticulture processed product engineer specialist; (8) food safety quality control system management specialist; and (9) agro-tourism development specialist.
 
 
Major government agencies responsible for fruit export
 
The major government agency responsible for fruit export is the Indonesian Directorate of Agricultural and Forestry Products Export (IDAFPE). This institution is under the Directorate General of Export Development of Ministry of Trade. The main tasks of the IDAFPE are formulating, organizing, implementing, and evaluating the policies, guidelines, norms, standards, procedures, and criteria of agricultural and fishery products export. These products cover food crops, fishery, livestock, estate crops, horticulture (including fruit), spices and medicinal plants, and forestry. 
   
On the other hand, the involvement of the Ministry of Agriculture in this affair is organized by the Indonesian Directorate of International Marketing (IDIM) of Directorate General of Processing and Marketing for Agricultural Products. The task of IDIM is essentially to coordinate with the IDAFPE in terms of analysis, export development, bilateral, regional, and multilateral trades, and commodity cooperation.  
    
Profile of fruit research and development institution
    
As previously mentioned, the R&D activities including fruit are organized by the IAARD particularly the ITFRI and ICSFRI under the ICHORD. The strategic goal of horticultural R&D in Indonesia is supporting the availabilities of new varieties, seed sources, environmentally friendly production, genetic resources, innovation dissemination, policy formulation, and collaboration/co-operation. 
   
The main fruit R&D spread across the two research institutes (ITFRI and ICSFRI). The ITFRI covers banana, papaya, mango, snake fruit, mangosteen, rambutan, durian, pineapple, water melon, melon, passion fruit, guava, persimmon, and avocado. Meanwhile, the ICSFRI includes citrus, apple, strawberry, lychee, and grape. These main fruit are grouped into the following commodity categories: (1) priority commodities (banana, citrus, mango, mangoes teen, and durian); (2) superior commodities (papaya, snake fruit, pineapple, apple, and grape); and (3) prospective commodities (rambutan, water melon, melon, passion fruit, persimmon, guava, lychee, and avocado).  
   
Apart from institutions under the Ministry of Agriculture, fruit R&D is also carried out by universities. Among other things, they are Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Brawijaya University (Unibraw) in East Java province, Mataram University (Unram) in West Nusa Tenggara province, and Lampung University (Unila) in Lampung province. IPB, in particular, has PKHT (Pusat Kajian Hortikultura/Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies). The main task of the PKHT is related to tropical horticulture plant breeding, technology development, market assessment, and partnership system. General information of the horticultural R&D institution in Indonesia can be seen in Appendix 22. 
   
Institutionally, the Indonesian fruit R&D are carried out by ITFRI (in Solok regency, West Sumatra province) and ICSFRI (in Batu regency, East Java province). The former has 55 researchers and four research assistants while the latter encompasses 27 researchers and 36 research assistants. Each research institute manages research stations summarized in Box 4 and Box 5.   
 
 
 
Box 4
Research stations of ITFRI
 
Aripan Research Station
The Aripan Research Station is located in Solok regency, West Sumatra province (next to ITFRI office). The total area of this research station is about 96.98 hectares situated at 425 meters above sea level. This is the second largest of ICHORD research station which has tropical fruit germplasms of banana, papaya, mangosteen, soursop, dragon fruit, pineapple, snake fruit, water melon, melon, and others. 
 
Sumani Research Station
The Sumani Research Station is located in Solok regency, West Sumatra province. The total area of this research station is about 25 hectares covering tropical fruit germplasms of banana, citrus, papaya, mango, mangosteen, snake fruit, and others. The research station supported by five laboratories namely breeding and tissue culture laboratories, chemistry and postharvest laboratories, crop protection laboratory, testing laboratory, and quality seeds and mass production laboratories.
 
Subang Research Station
The Subang Research Station is located in Subang regency, West Java province. This is the largest research station of ICHORD with the total area of about is 108.90 hectares situated at 80-105 meter above sea level with land type of Latosol (dryland with 5-70% slope), 2,500-3,000 millimeters rainfall, 23-350 C temperature, 26-35 percent humidity. The research station is known as “Nusantara/Archipelago Tropical Fruit Germplasms” of papaya, pineapple, water melon, melon, and others. 
 
Kraton Research Station
The Kraton Research Station is located in Pasuruan regency, East Java province. The total area of this research station is about 7.68 hectares. The research station has mango germplasm with 618 plants and 16 varieties (majority Aromanis and Gadung) and pomelo germplasm with 71 plants and 15 varieties. Both fruit have specific and unique tastes. 
 
Pandean Research Station
The Pandean Research Station is located in Pasuruan regency, East Java province. The total area of this research station is about 3.42 hectares. The research station has mango germplasm with 182 plants and 4 varieties (“Aromanis”, “Gadung”, “Manalagi”, and “Golek”). Majority of plants (133 plants) are planted in 1936. 
 
Cukurgondang Research Station
The Cukurgondang Research Station is located in Pasuruan regency, East Java province. The total area of this research station is about 13.03 hectares which has 1,568 plants (208 varieties and 298 clones) of mango germplasms This research station initially established by Dutch in 1938 and currently known as one of the complete mango germplasm in the world, particularly in South East Asia.  
 
Source: ITFRI, 2014
 
 
 
 
Box 5
Research stations of ICSFRI
 
Tlekung Research Station
The Tlekung Research Station is located in Batu regency, East Java province (next to ICSFRI office). The total area of this research station is about 12.96 hectares situated at 950 meters above sea level with land type of Latosol and D climate type (rainfall 1,800 mm annually). Currently, there are about 1,625 fruit plants comprises 145 varieties with age of 3-65 years. The type of fruit plants includes citrus, pomelo, longan strawberry, lychee, avocado, apple, peach/plum, grape, and other miscellaneous plants. The research station has a visitor plot of commercial citrus and germplasm of citrus, apple, longan, and grape as well as central collection of sub-tropical fruit plants. 
 
Punten Research Station
The Punten Research Station is located in Batu regency, East Java province. The total area of this research station is about 2.70 hectares situated at 950 meters above sea level with land type of Eptisol. Latosol and D climate type (rainfall 1,800 mm annually).This research station is the most complete germplasm of citrus in Indonesia which has free-disease nursery and distributes citrus seed/seedling(s) to 22 regions in the country.  
 
Banaran Research Station
The Banaran Research Station is located in Batu regency, East Java province. The total area of this research station is about 1.22 hectares situated at 950 meters above sea level. This research station focuses on apple particularly “Manalagi”, “Anna”, and “Rome Beauty” varieties (407 plants). Apart from that, the research station has also 63 varieties of apple (312 plants). 
 
Kliran Research Station
The Kliran Research Station is located in Batu regency, East Java province. This research station consists of research station I in Kliran (0.5 hectares, 950 meters above sea level) and research station II in Sumberbrantas (0.1 hectares, 1.450 meters above sea level).  In the past, this research station covered apple but currently it focuses on citrus and strawberry at research station I and research station II, respectively. Apple is presently handled by Tlekung Research Station.
  
Banjarsari Research Station
The Banjaran Research Station is located in Probolinggo regency, East Java province. This research station established in 1955 and the only one and the most complete grape germplasm in Indonesia. The research station has an area of about 4.76 hectares situated at 4 meters above sea level with land type of Alluvial. This area has an average rainfall of about 1,200 millimeters annually (90 rainy days), temperature of 280 C (210 C minimum and 340 C maximum), and humidity of 76 percent. The research station has germplams include 44 varieties of grape, 8 varieties of longan, and 66 varieties of citrus. 
 
Source: ICSFRI, 2014
 
 
 
International fruit cooperation projects 
 
In order to improve the capacity and research and to generate the technology acceleration, the Indonesian research institutions carry out collaboration with international agencies/institutions. In the last five years (2008-2013), the international collaboration research includes banana and mango is presented in Table 18.
 
 
CONCLUSION
 
The study covers a comprehensive fruit production and marketing time series data within the last five-years in Indonesia. It also includes policies and regulations implemented by the  agricultural sector particularly, horticulture including fruit. Those are reported based on the availability of data and information in the country. 
 
The main constraint encountered in preparing this report was the limited sources covering the data and information in line with the time frame of the study. At least there are three substantial reasons related to this case. First, fruit farms have not been managed properly since they are grown at scattered areas from home yard to other types of land especially dryland. Second, the official data at the national level are not perfectly available since Indonesia is a huge country with separated islands and administrative governmental levels. Third, currently fruit are relatively minor crops compared to those of strategic commodities such as rice, corn, soybean, and oil palm by which it has a consequence on the availability of data and information in the country. 
   
Above all, this report attempts to provide and analyze the official Indonesian data and information of which it would be able to facilitate any parties interested on fruit particularly in the country. It is believed that Indonesia has abundant potential tropical fruit required to be explored more in line with research and development (R&D) efforts. 
 
REFERENCES
 
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  • ICHORD. 2014. Program Kerjasama Penelitian Hortikultura (Horticulture Research Collaboration Program) 2010-2014. Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • IDFPP. 2013. Tugas dan Fungsi (Task and Function) of IDFPP. Indonesian Directorate of Fruit Production and Postharvest. Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • IDGH. 2010. Rencana Strategis (Strategic Plan) of IDGH, 2010-2014. Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • IDGH. 2013. Tugas dan Fungsi (Task and Function) of IDGH. Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • IDGH. 2014. Rencana Kerja Tahunan (Annual Work Plan) 2013. Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • IDGPMAP. 2014. Laporan Harga Produsen Komoditas (Agricultural Producer Commodity Price Report). Indonesian Directorate General of Processing and Marketing for Agricultural Products. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Indonesian MoA. 2006. Surat Keputusan Menteri Pertanian (Minister of Agriculture Decision Letter No. 511/Kpts/PD.310/9/2006) on Targeted Development of Plant Commodity of Directorate Generals of Estate Crops, Food Crops, and Horticulture in Indonesia. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Indonesian MoA. 2009. Rancangan Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian Tahun  (Strategic Plan of Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture) 2010-2014. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia. 
  • Indonesian MoA. 2012. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian (Minister of Agriculture Regulation) No. 60/Permentan/OT.140/9/2012 tentang Rekomendasi Impor Produk Hortikultura (concerning Recommendation on the Importation of Horticultural Products). Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia. 
  • Indonesian MoA. 2013. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian (Minister of Agriculture Regulation) No. 86/Permentan/OT.140/8/2013 tentang Rekomendasi Impor Produk Hortikultura (concerning Recommendation Import of Horticultural Products). Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia. 
  • Indonesian MoA. 2013. Statistik Pertanian Indonesia (Indonesian Agriculture Statistics) 2013. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia. 
  • Indonesian MoA. 2014. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian (Minister of Agriculture Regulation) No. 109/Permentan/OT.140/9/2014 tentang Kualifikasi Keahlian dan Kemampuan Tertentu Sumber Daya Manusia di Bidang Hortikultura dari Luar Negeri (concerning Qualifications of Specific Expertise and Capacity of Foreign Horticultural Human Resources. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia. 
  • Indonesian MoA. 2014. Tugas dan Fungsi (Task and Function) of the Indonesian Directorate of International Marketing of Directorate General of Processing and Marketing for Agricultural Products Agricultural and Forestry Products Export. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Indonesian MoT. 2014. Tugas dan Fungsi (Task and Function) of the Indonesian Directorate of Agricultural and Forestry Products Export. Indonesian Ministry of Trade. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ITFRI. 2013. Tugas dan Fungsi (Task and Function) of ITFRI. Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute. Solok, Indonesia.
  • ITFRI. 2014. Major Forms and Sources of Planting Materials of Top Eight Fruit in Indonesia. Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute. Solok, Indonesia.
  • ITFRI. 2014. Selected Fruit Productivity in Indonesia. Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (personal communication). Solok, Indonesia.
  • PKHT-IPB. 2013. Tugas dan Fungsi (Task and Function) of PKHT-IPB. Pusat Kajian Hortikultura-Institut Pertanian Bogor (Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies-Bogor Agricultural University). Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Poerwanto, R. and M. Firdous. 2008.  Supply and Demand Trend of Tropical Fruit in Indonesia. Paper Presented at the 4th International Symposium on Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruit. Bogor, 3-7 November 2008. Bogor, Indonesia. 
 

Table 1.  Type of selected fruit study in Indonesia

Source:    MoA (2009)

 

Table 2.  Number of growers based on agricultural sub-sector in Indonesia, 2008-2012 (household)

 

Table 3.  Number (million) of agricultural smallholders by region in Indonesia (household)

Source: ICBS, 2013

 

Table 4. Number of major growing areas of top eight fruit in Indonesia

Note: 1] proportion of major growing areas of the total number of administrative government levels

Source: IDGH (2014)

 

Table 5.  Major forms and sources of planting materials of top eight fruit in Indonesia

Source: ITFRI, 2014

 

Table 6.  Harvested area of top eight fruit in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (hectare)

Note: 1] preliminary figure

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

Table 7.  Top eight fruit production in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (ton)

Note: 1] preliminary figure

Source:  ICADIS, 2014

 

Table 8. Top eight fruit productivity in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (ton/hectare)1]

Note:  1] calculated based on fruit harvested area and production                      

             2] preliminary figure

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

Table 9.  Comparison productivity of top eight fruit in Indonesia (ton/hectare) 

Note: 1] ICADIS, 2014                    

         2] Researchers of ITFRI, 2014

 

 

Table 10.  Harvesting months of top eight fruit in Indonesia  

Source: IDGH, 2014

 

 

Table 11.  Number of fruit and vegetable industries in Indonesia, 2008-2010 (unit)

Note: 1] KLBI (Klasifikasi Baku Lapangan Usaha Indonesia/Indonesian Standard Industrial Classification) Codes

Source: IMI, 2013 

 

 

Table 12.  Top eight fresh fruit consumption in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (kg/capita/year)

Note: 1] preliminary figure – n.a. (not available)

Source:  ICADIS, 2014  and IFSA-ICBS, 2013

 

 

Table 13.  Summary of destination and proportion of Indonesian top eight fresh fruit export based on volume, 2013 (percent)

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Table 14.  Summary of value, volume, and origin of Indonesian fruit import, 2013

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Table 15.  Value, volume, and origin of fruit import in Indonesia, 2013

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Table 16.  Fruit development-based category and classification in Indonesia

Note:
1] classified based its category
2] classified as the national fruit
3] characterized as: supporting fruit required all the time/season, import substitution, low
productivity, small-scale size with grown separately at specific agroecosystem, and multi 
varieties
4] characterized as: superior and unique varieties, optimizing land/spatial use, potential 
demanding, and local priority fruit which is proposed as national fruit. 
 
Source: IDGH, 2010 (summarized)
 
 
 

Table 17. Policy direction, strategy, action plan, operational step, program, and activity of fruit development in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2010 (summarized)

 

Fig. 1.  Proportion of growers based on agricultural sub-sector in Indonesia (percent)

(Source: ICADIS, 2013)

 

 

Fig. 2. Harvested area of common fruit in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (hectare)

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Fig. 3.  Common fruit production in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (000 ton)

(Source: ICADIS, 2014)

 

 

Fig. 4.  Common fresh fruit consumption in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (kg/capita/year)

Source: ICADIS, 2014 and IFSA-ICBS, 2013

 

 

Fig. 5.  Comparison of Indonesia, selected ASEAN countries, and global fruit consumptions, 2008-2011 (kg/capital/year) 
 
(Source: FAO Stat., 2012)
 
 
 
Fig. 6. Average farm gate values of top eight fruit, 2008-2013 (IDR)
 
Source: ICBS (2013), ICADIS (2014), and IDGPMAP (2014)
 
 
 
APPENDICES
 
 
Appendix 1.  National priority commodity-based agricultural sub-sectors in Indonesia
 
Note:
1] Self-sufficiency target in 2014
2] National fruit crops priority 
 
Source: Indonesian MoA, 2009
 
 
 

Appendix 2.  List of targeted fruit development in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 (based on Minister of Agriculture Decision Letter No. 511/Kpts/PD.310/9/2006)

 

 

Appendix 3. Major growing areas of banana in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 

 

 

Appendix 4. Major growing areas of citrus in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014

 

 

Appendix 5. Major growing areas of papaya in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 

 

 

Appendix 6. Major growing areas of mango in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 

 

 

Appendix 7. Major growing areas of snake fruit in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 

 

 

Appendix 8. Major growing areas of mangosteen in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 

 

 

Appendix 9. Major growing areas of rambutan in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014 

 

 

Appendix 10.  Major growing areas of durian in Indonesia

Source: IDGH, 2014

 

 

Appendix 11. Harvested area of fruit in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (hectare)

Note:   1] preliminary figure 

Source: ICADIS, 2014
 
 
 

Appendix 12. Fruit production in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (ton)

Note:    1] preliminary figure

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Appendix 13. Fruit productivity in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (ton/hectare)

Note: 1] preliminary figure 

Source: ICADIS, 2014 (calculated based on fruit harvested area and production)
 
 
 

Appendix 14. Fresh fruit consumption in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (kg/capita/year)

Note: 1] preliminary figure  n.a. (not available)

Source: ICADIS, 2012 and IFSA and ICBS, 2013
 
 

Appendix 15. Farm gate value of top eight fresh fruit in Indonesia, 2008-2013 (IDR)

Note: n.a. (not available)

Source: 1] ICBS, 2013   2] ICADIS, 2014    3] IDGPMAP, 2014
 
 
 

Appendix 16. Destination and proportion of Indonesian top eight fresh fruit export, 2012-2013 (percent)

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Appendix 17. Volume, value, and origin of Indonesian fresh fruit import, 2012-2013

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Appendix 17 (continued). Volume, value, and origin of Indonesian fresh fruit import, 2012-2013

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Appendix 17 (continued) Volume, value, and origin of Indonesian fresh fruit import, 2012-2013 

Source: ICADIS, 2014

 

 

Appendix 18. Organizational Structure of Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture

Legend: Assistants Minister for Environment, Agricultural Development Policy, International Cooperation,
Innovation and Technology, and Agricultural Investment
IDGFC (Indonesian Directorate General of Food Crops)
IDGH (Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture)
IDGEC (Indonesian Directorate General of Estate Crops)
IDGLAH (Indonesian Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health)
IDGPMAP (Indonesian Directorate General of Processing and Marketing for Agricultural Products)
IDGAIF (Indonesian Director General of Agricultural Infrastructure and Facilities)
IAARD (Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development)
IDGAEHR (Indonesian Directorate General of Agricultural Extension and Human Resource)
IFSA (Indonesian Food Security Agency)
IAQA (Indonesia Agricultural Quarantine Agency)
ICIC (Indonesian Center for International Cooperation)
ICADIS (Indonesian Centre for Agricultural Data and Information System)
ICPVPAP (Indonesian Center for Plant Variety Protection and Agriculture Permit)
 
 
Source: Indonesian MoA, 2014
 
 
 

Appendix 19. Organizational Structure of Indonesia Directorate General of Horticulture

Legend: IDGH (Indonesian Directorate General of Horticulture)

IDHS (Indonesian Directorate of Horticultural Seedlings)
IDFPP (Indonesian Directorate of Fruit Production and Postharvest)
IDVHPPP (Indonesian Directorate of Vegetable and Herbal Plants Production and Postharvest)
IDFPP (Indonesian Directorate of Floriculture Production and Postharvest)
IDHP (Indonesian Directorate of Horticultural Protection)
 
Source: IDGH, 2014
 
 
 

Appendix 20. Organizational Structure of Indonesia Agency for Agricultural Research and Development

Legend:

IAARD (Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development)
ICFORD (Indonesian Center for Food Crops Research and Development )
ICRR (Indonesian Center for Rice Research)
ILTCRI (Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute)
ICRI (Indonesian Cereals Research Institute)
ITDRS (Indonesian Tungro Diseases Research Station)
ICHORD (Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development)
IVRI (Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute)
ITFRI (Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute)
IOCRI (Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute)
ICSFRI (Indonesian Citrus and Sub-tropical Fruit Research Institute)
ICECRD (Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development)
ISMCI (Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute)
ISFCRI (Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute)
IPRI (Indonesian Palma Research Institute)
IIFCRI (Indonesian Industry and Freshener Crops Research Institute)
ICARD (Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development)
IRIAP (Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production)
IRCVS (Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Sciences)
IBCRS (Indonesian Beef Cattle Research Station)
IGRS (Indonesian Goats Research Station)
ICASEPS (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Socio Economic and Policy Studies)
ICALTD (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Library and Technology Dissemination)
ICALRRD (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development)
IWETRI (Indonesian Wetland Research Institute)
ISRI (Indonesian Soil Research Institute)
IAHRI (Indonesian Agro-climate and Hydrology Research Institute)
IAERI (Indonesian Agricultural Environment Research Institute)
ICATAD (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Technology Assessment and Development)
IAIAT (Indonesian Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology)
ICAERD (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Research and Development)
ICABIOGRD (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Research and Development)
ICAPOSTRD (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Post Harvest Research and Development)
IOATTIPM (Office for Agricultural Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Management)
 
 
Source: IAARD, 2014
 
 
 

Appendix 21. General information of Indonesian directorate of fruit production and postharvest  

 
Address: Jalan AUP No 3, Pasar Minggu, Jakarta 12520
Phone: +62-21 7806775/78844037 Fax: +62 21 7805880
 
 
 

Appendix 22. General information of Indonesian R&D horticultural institutions  

Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD)
Adress: Jalan Ragunan 29, Pasar Minggu, Jakarta 12540, Indonesia
Phone: +62 021 7806202 – Fax: +62 21 7800644
 
 
 

Appendix 22 (continued). General information of Indonesian horticultural institutions  

Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development (ICHORD)
Address: Jalan Raya Ragunan 29A, Pasar Minggu, Jakarta 12540, Indonesia
Phone: +62 021 7805768/7892205 – Fax: +62 21 7805135/7892205
 
 
 

Appendix 22 (continued). General information of Indonesian horticultural institutions

Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (ITFRI)
Jalan Raya Solok-Aripan Km 8, PO Box 5, Solok 27301, West Sumatra
Phone: +62 755 20137 – Fax: +62 0755 20592
 
 
 
Indonesian Citrus and Sub-tropical Fruit Research Institute (ICSFRI)
 
Jalan Raya Tlekung No.1, Junrejo, Batu 65301, East Java
Phone: +62 341 592683 – Fax: +62 341 593047
Email: balitjestro@litbang.pertanian.go.id
 
 
 
 

Appendix 22 (continued). General information of Indonesian horticultural institutions

Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies-Bogor Agricultural University (PKHT-IPB)
Baranangsiang Campus of IPB, Jalan Raya Pajajaran, Bogor 16144
Phone: +62 251 8326881/8382201 – Fax: +62 251 8326881
E-mail: ipbfruit@indo.net.id and fruit@ipb.ac.id  
 
 
 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 


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