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Integrated Coastal Zone Management with Sustainable Aquaculture
Yoshiaki Matsuda
Professor Emeritus, Kagoshima University
and Fisheries Consultant, IC Net/JICA
5-72 Senshu-kitanomaru
Akita 010-0872, Japan, 2010-04-15

Abstract

Aquaculture grows in importance as capture fisheries faces serious problems of fuel price hike, over-investment, resource depletion and management. However, aquaculture is not without problems, as several common property management issues observed in capture fisheries are present in aquaculture. Many governments have focused on responsible fisheries from the time FAO adopted the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in 1995. However, many aquaculture farmers, processors and fish traders are not yet aware of the importance of responsible fisheries. As a result, mishandling of foods such as false labelling and unsafe food supply, have caused consumers' rejection of food and fish products. Accordingly, requirements for HACCP-like quality standard, eco-labelling, transparency and traceability have increased and added costs for the products. Aquaculture production in the Asian region comprises more than 90% of world production. Integrated coastal zone management developed in the western countries is important in aquaculture production. However, the history of coastal zone use reveals existence of many stakeholders with diverse interests, which makes coordination difficult. Issues include environment vs. development; land use vs. maritime use; producers vs. processors, traders and consumers; trading vs. self-consumption; governments vs. private entities; primary industry vs. secondary and tertiary industries; free market economy vs. community development; open access vs. limited entry; technological development vs. traditional practices; and Asian context vs. western context. This paper reviews the global trends in aquaculture and coastal zone management and discusses the role of sustainable aquaculture in integrated coastal zone management.

Key words: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), sustainable aquaculture, food safety, traceability

Introduction

The 21st century is said to be the Ocean Age. The ocean is the last frontier of the earth since marine objects have been difficult to sense due to barriers of water, current, high salinity, low dissolved oxygen, buoyancy, high pressures and aquatic organisms. Fisheries and marine transportation have been the only industries based on the sea for a long time. All other maritime uses are rather recent activities. Among maritime industries, fisheries based on renewable resources are the most dynamic and integrated industry binding land with sea. Wise management of fisheries using common property will contribute to the society's environment and resource enhancement. It will open economic opportunities in rural areas. It will enhance community development with cultural, recreational, and educational opportunities. Moreover, wise management of fisheries will help safeguard national security. Thus, an integrated coastal zone management of any country must consider sustainable management of both fisheries and aquaculture.

Although food security is a barometer of a nation's independence, the food self-sufficiency rate widely varies from 0% to 237% ( Table 1(1234)). Due to the globalization and free trade trends, this gap has widened. With current agricultural technology, political will, life style, and population growth in developing countries, the world food shortage problem will be serious in the very near future ( Table 2(1133), Table 3(1113), Table 4(1297)). With agriculture's limited growth, fisheries and aquaculture have been the focus of development since the 1970s. However, capture fisheries productions have reached a plateau of 100 million tons ( Fig. 1(1167)) (Garcia and Newton, 1996; FAO, 2005; FAO, 2007), while 280-500 million tons of fishes were estimated to be eaten by whales protected by IWC (International Whaling Commission), an international fisheries management organization (Tamura and Ohsumi, 1999). On the other hand, aquaculture production increased from 30 million tons in 1994 to 67 million tons in 2006 ( Fig. 2(1146), Fig. 3(1316). Fig. 4(1207) and Fig. 5(1196)).

Trends in Aquaculture

Fig. 2(1146) shows the world aquaculture production by species. In 2006, total production accounted for 66.7 million tons including freshwater fishes (28 million tons) followed by aquatic plants such as kelp, wakame and Eucheuma sp. (15 million tons), molluscs such as oyster and scallops (14 million), crustaceans such as shrimps (4.5 million tons), diadromous fishes such as salmon, tuna and yellowtail (3.1 million tons), marine fishes (1.8 million tons) and others (0.5 million tons) ( Fig. 3(1316)).

On the other hand, world aquaculture production by continent is shown in Fig. 3(1316). In 2006, Asia produced 61 million tons (92% of total), followed by America (3.3%), Europe (3.2%), Africa (1.1%) and Oceania (0.2%) ( Fig. 5(1196)). Thus, Asia dominates aquaculture. Therefore, the world aquaculture policy must consider the Asian context of aquaculture. Aquaculture productions of the top 12 countries are shown in Fig. 6(1436). China dominates aquaculture production in the world followed by India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Rep. of Korea, Japan, Bangladesh, Chile, Norway and USA.

Many governments promote aquaculture for foreign exchange earnings, income, and employment generation. Aquaculture development in the world has been closely associated with trade. Although seafood trade has been dominated by three species: shrimp, salmon and tuna, shrimp is a typical species produced in the south and exported to the north. Shrimp culture is popular in developing countries such as China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Myanmar, the `Philippines, Ecuador, Columbia, Honduras, Guatemala. World shrimp production in 2006 was 6,624,000 tons including 3,164,000 tons (47.8%) from aquaculture. Major exporting countries include Thailand with US$1.2 trillion in 2001, followed by Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Mexico, Argentine, Ecuador, China and Bangladesh while major importing countries include the USA with US$3 trillion in 2001, followed by Japan, Spain, France, Canada, Italy, the UK, the Netherlands, Belgium and Thailand (FAO 2007). Thailand imports shrimp for processing, then re-exports the final products to developed countries.

The world shrimp aquaculture production by country is shown in Fig. 7(1417) and Fig. 8(1160). Artificial propagation technology of Penaeus japonicas, a temperate species of Kuruma shrimp, was developed by Gensaku Fijinaga in Japan in 1964 and this technology was successfully applied by a Taiwanese scientist to Penaeus monodon, a tropical species of the Kuruma shrimp, in 1968. This was a breakthrough in shrimp culture in the world. In the 1970s, shrimp culture was paid much attention by many developing countries. In the Philippines, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department was established and emphasized shrimp production technology. This was a preparation period for the shrimp culture industry in the world. Shrimp culture for export purposes has grown rapidly since the 1980s.

The world salmon aquaculture production by country is shown in Fig. 9(1257) and Fig. 10(1111). In 2006, the total salmon aquaculture production including Atlantic, Silver (Coho) and Masu (Cherry) salmons was 1,440,000 tons. This is equivalent to 62.3% of the total production (2,350,834 tons) of all salmons caught by either capture or aquaculture, comprising of Atlantic, King (Chinook), Chum, Silver (Coho), Masu (Cherry), Pink, Sockeye and Salmonoids nei (FAO 2008).

The world tuna aquaculture production by country is shown in Fig. 11(1281) and Fig. 12(1282). With Japanese assistance, southern bluefin tuna farming began in Port Lincoln, Australia in early 1980s. Nova Scotia in Canada, Boston in the USA and Ceuta, Spain also started short-term fattening of spawned bluefin tuna in 1990s. All farmed tuna have been exported to Japan. In 2005, Japan imported 8,803 tons of farmed southern bluefin tuna from Australia, 5,302 tons from Spain and 2,562 tons from Mexico (JETRO 2006). In 2006, the production of cultured tunas of Bluefin, Southern Bluefin, and Yellowfin was 14,624 tons. This is equivalent to 7.9% of the catches of large tunas comprising of Albacore, Bluefin, Southern Bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin tunas of the same year. However, this is equivalent to 91.9% of total tuna aquaculture production (14,624 tons) and 21.4% of the total production of the major three tuna cultured species of Atlantic Bluefin, Pacific Bluefin and Southern Bluefin tunas including both capture and aquaculture (FAO 2008).

Issues in Responsible Aquaculture

FAO Code of Conduct for responsible fisheries 1995 (FAO 1995), which includes aquaculture, is a necessary framework for national and international efforts to ensure sustainable exploitation of aquatic living resources in harmony with the environment. This code is voluntary and global in scope directed to both member and non-member countries. However, certain parts are based on relevant rules of international law such as UNCLOS. It covers the capture, aquaculture, processing and trade of fish and fish products, fishing operation, fisheries research and integration of fisheries in coastal area management.

Article 9 pertains to aquaculture development as:

  • 9.1 Responsible development of aquaculture including culture-based fisheries in areas under national jurisdiction;
  • 9.2 Responsible development of aquaculture including culture-based fisheries within transboundary aquatic ecosystems;
  • 9.3 Use of aquatic genetic resources for the purposes of aquaculture including culture-based fisheries; and
  • 9.4 Responsible aquaculture at the production level.
  • These must be considered in aquaculture development in the future. However, gaps between these and real situations are very large.

Shrimp Culture

Production dropped in Taiwan from 16,715 tons in 1985 to 2,459 tons in 2001 due to the outbreak of Monodon Baculovirus (MBV) in 1988; in the Philippines from 88,850 tons in 1995 to 36,859 tons in 1998; and in Ecuador from 129,600 tons in 1998 to 50,110 tons in 2000 due to the Taura Syndrome virus (TSV) in 1998. More than 20 virus diseases have been identified by now and caused high risk for the industry. Indonesia, Thailand, India, Vietnam and Mexico are also suffering from disease problems (Fukano 2004).

The disease problem is also associated with problems of mangrove destruction, drug use and water pollution. From 1980 to 2005, 3.6 million hectares of mangrove were destroyed in the world. This is equivalent to 20% of the mangrove areas in 1980, though the speed of this destruction has slowed down from 185,000 ha/year in the 1980s to 105,000 ha/year after 2000 (Worldwatch Institute 2006). Some of these mangroves were destroyed for the development of shrimp culture ponds though a large portion of mangrove destruction is related to logging, charcoal production and local self-consumption as well as the Vietnam war before 1980. Due to the disease problem, 150,000 hectares of shrimp ponds converted from mangrove were abandoned in Asia from 1985 to 1995. Some of these abandoned ponds are currently used for extensive or semi-intensive polyculture of shrimp with milkfish, tilapia, rabbit fish, mud crabs, seaweeds and mangroves, as well as for mangrove rehabilitation projects in various countries such as Ecuador, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

Apart from the disease problem, capital-intensive export-oriented shrimp culture has been criticized in many ways as follows (Taya 2003):

  • 1) Government-supported industrial capital-intensive shrimp culture has worked at a cost to the local community. These include mangrove destruction resulting in land acquisition with extremely low prices for local residents, no trespassing, depletion of fisheries resources, flooding, increases of natural hazards such as damages from storms, high tide and earthquakes, and destruction of self-sufficiency;
  • 2) Water and soil pollution due to heavy feeding, disease and drug use, resulting in abandonment of those ponds in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Equador;
  • 3) Little contribution to the local economy since the industry's interest is in its own profits and not of the community;
  • 4) Irreversible conversion of rice paddies to brackish water shrimp ponds in Vietnam and China in particular;
  • 5) Hike of domestic shrimp prices. Shrimps used to be popular seafood for local people at reasonable prices. However, the price for exports has been set much higher than the domestic one. As a result, the availability of shrimps domestically has decreased and the price has increased.

Some of the abandoned shrimp ponds have been used by local residents for extensive or semi-intensive polyculture in the Philippines. However, people are very interested in shrimp culture because the average price is seven times higher than milkfish, though mortality rates are more than 90% due to the disease problem. The current marketing system is unable to separate healthy shrimps from those contaminated by virus and others.

In Vietnam, shrimp culture is a very diverse industry. Small-scale farms occupy 90% with an extensive production of 200 kg/ha as compared to an intensive production of 10-15 tons/ha and there are 439 processing plants of which 300 are accredited by the HACCP for export. However, they have the following problems (Muroya 2006):

  • 1) Difficulty of collecting both brooders and exportable shrimp: Availability of hatchery technology is limited and most farmers are small-scale so that each purchase is a small lot of several kilograms. Further, traceability is very difficult due to a mixture of shrimp from many farmers including all categories of farming such as extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture;
  • 2) Insufficiency of feed and drug management even among capital-intensive farms;
  • 3) Insufficiency of understanding about water management, food safety and sanitation;
  • 4) Lack of appropriate infrastructures such as electricity and roads;
  • 5) Low investment capability; and
  • 6) Lack of technology and information concerned.

Salmon Culture

Since 1997, cultured salmon production exceeded that of natural salmon. These cultured salmon are basically for export, not for domestic consumption (Sano 2003). Salmon are cultured in Norway, Chile, the UK, Canada, Feroe Islands, Finland, Ireland, USA, Australia, Denmark, Sweden, New Zealand and Iceland. Norway with a production of 626,000 tons and Chile with 505,000 tons in 2006 dominated salmon culture. However, they were not problem- free. Issues are as follows:

Norway

  • 1) Oligopoly: More than 800 management units in 1992 were reduced to 270 in 1999 and top six groups produced three-quarters of total production, resulting in price-war situation (Sano, 2003);
  • 2) No domestic market for cultured salmon, resulting in high risk (Sano, 2003);
  • 3) Increase in license price due to limited number of licenses (Sano, 2003);
  • 4) Increasing international competition, lowering profit margins (Sano, 2003);
  • 5) High-risk, high-return to high-risk, low-return industry;
  • 6) Escaped farmed salmon resulting in a creation of genetic disturbance (WWF, 2007); and
  • 7) Depletion of wild Atlantic salmon by 80% between 1970 to the end of the 20th century in the North Atlantic Ocean. A reason for this is suspected to be attributable to the salmon culture (WWF, 2007).

Chile

Issues are discussed in Sakuma, 2007; Takahashi, 2007; Hayashi, 2007. These are:

  • 1) Use of wild caught fish for fish-feed with a low feed conversion ratio: 8.6 kg of wild caught sardine, anchovy, and horse mackerel are used as feeds to produce 1 kg of cultured salmon;
  • 2) Pollution: Coastal capture fisheries have become non-existent in 10 provinces where salmon culture is very popular;
  • 3) Use of pesticides and antibiotics: There is no inspection on these matters;
  • 4) Defective legal system resulting in victimization of health and the lives of laborers;
  • 5) Weak enforcement capability;
  • 6) Widening of income disparity;
  • 7) Increasing abnormal cultured salmon due to feeding of heads and bones of cultured salmon.

Tuna Culture

Only bluefin tuna and southern bluefin tuna are dominant species for the aquaculture. Although artificial propagation technology of bluefin tuna has developed in Japan, use of these artificial fingerlings for aquaculture is not economical yet, hence, natural juvenile or spawned fish are used for aquaculture. There are three types of tuna culture: (1) culture for 1-3 years from 0.20 to 1 kg bluefin juvenile to commercial size which is popular in Japan; (2) culture of 20 to 30 kg southern bluefin juvenile to commercial size of less than 40 kg popular in Australia; and (3) culture for 2-3 months' fattening of spawned bluefin tuna in Canada, USA, Mexico and Mediterranean Sea including Algeria, Croatia, Cyprus, Libya, Malta, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey. All are agri-business activities. The fattening of spawned brooders or juvenile has been dominant and characteristic of tuna farming. They consume large amount of sardine, anchovy, herring, mackerels and squids as feeds. Feed conversion rates range from 10 to 25 kg of bait fish to produce 1 kg of tuna. Most of farmed tuna are consumed in Japan. They are not without problems. Issues are as follows (WWF 2004):

  • 1) Resource depletion due to the use of spawned brooders and young juveniles and conflicts with capture fishers;
  • 2) Baitfish resource depletion in Croatia,
  • 3) Resource depletion of local species inviting conflicts between the local purse seine fleet targeting small pelagics and the tuna farmers as well as between tuna farmers and cetacean specialists in Spain;
  • 4) Pollution due to over feeding and farm waste in France;
  • 5) Polluted meat due to polluted feedfish in some farms using Baltic herring;
  • 6) EU Subsidies for tuna farming;
  • 7) Create IUU (Illegal, Unreported and Unregistered) fishing and FOC (Flag of Convenience) farming in Mediterranean Sea.
  • 8) Illegal extension of farms towards environmentally sensitive areas due to lack of availability of Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain;
  • 9) Conflicts between Purse seine fishermen to catch tuna for farming and longliners in Malta;
  • 10) Oversupply of tuna and the subsequent dropping prices;
  • 11) Statistical problem in ICCAT: "Some bluefin tuna transshipped after catch from purse seine to farming cages might not be included in the catch statistics of the flag country of fishing vessels, particularly when the nationality of fishing country and the fish farms are different";
  • 12) Lack of integrated tuna farming management: Tuna farming is getting out of control, only driven by market forces;

The Concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management

The concept of integrated coastal zone management developed in the western countries is important. However, the history of coastal zone use reveals existence of many stakeholders with diverse interests, which makes coordination efforts difficult. Issues include environment vs. development; land use vs. maritime use; producers vs. processors, traders and consumers; trading vs. self consumption; governments vs. private entities; primary industry vs. secondary and tertiary industries; free market economy vs. community development; open access vs. limited entry; technological development vs. traditional practices; and Asian context vs. western context.

Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) was first adopted in the Agenda 21 of the 1992 Earth's Summit (UNCED) as a policy issue (United Nations, 2008; Ship and Ocean Foundation 2005). Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including exclusive economic zones is the top item in Article 17: Protection of the Oceans, All Kinds of Seas, including Enclosed and Semi-enclosed seas and Coastal Areas and the Protection of Rational Use and Development of their Living Resources, recognizing that current approaches to the management of marine and coastal resources have not always proved to achieving sustainable development, and coastal resources and the coastal environment are being rapidly degraded and eroded in many parts of the world. In 2002, World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) followed the Agenda 21 and re-emphasized actions plans. Since then, many countries have developed those action plans such as New Ocean Policy for the 21st Century, Korea in 1995; the China's Ocean Agenda 21, China in 1996; Sustainable Development Strategies in the Seas of East Asia, PEMSEA (Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia) in 2003; the Ocean Blue Print for the 21st Century, USA in 2004.

Common interests in ICZM are as follows:

  • 1) Objectives: Balance between utilization and ecological environment in the coastal area for sustainable development;
  • 2) Concepts: Follow the concepts adopted in UNCED 1992 such as equity principle among generations, precautionary principle, and polluter's pay principle. ICZM is an integrated and multi-disciplinary policy based on available scientific base;
  • 3) Functions: Promote the balance of multi-disciplinary interests in coastal zone management; protect the biodiversity and productivity of coastal areas to maintain recreational and cultural values; promote rational development and sustainable use of coastal and marine resources to prevent conflicts among interest groups;
  • 4) Area integration: ICZM covers all coastal areas of land and seas including EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) affected by any action. The state government is responsible for ICZM based on UNCLOS (United Nations' Law of the Sea), 1982 and UNCED's action plans;
  • 5) Horizontal and vertical integration: Role of government is to prevent conflict among users and sectors
  • 6) Scientific Base: Necessary to use scientific bases supported by monitoring, risk assessment, vulnerability assessment, and cost-benefits analysis.

Article 10 of FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries concerns integration of fisheries into coastal area management to achieve the sustainable and integrated use of resources, taking into account the fragility of coastal ecosystem and the finite nature of their natural resources and the needs of coastal communities. In view of the multiple uses of the coastal area, representatives of the fisheries sectors and fishing communities should be consulted in the decision-making processes. They must be involved in other activities related to coastal area management planning and development.

Integrated coastal zone management treats every stakeholder equally and always advocate the balance between development and conservation. Once the policy is accepted, the "all or nothing principle" is applied and flexibility is observed due to the jurisdictional approach. Human history has been a repetition of this pattern.

Rises and falls are common in any industry. However, the current development in aquaculture has been dominated by profit-motivated agri-businesses (Sano, 2003, Kinki University, 2008). The question is "Are these sustainable?" The answer is definitely "No" because agri-business oriented aquaculture seeks for profits, not for community development. The business ceases whenever it becomes no longer profitable. Although the spirit of trade is a "Win-Win" solution, the reality that exists is "Zero Sum" solution under free trade trends _ benefiting some at the expense of others, resulting in market failure and enlargement of inequality. Many other stakeholders in the coastal area are also profit-seekers. Therefore, government as a trustee must play a role in integrating the profit motivation of stakeholders with the sustainability of the communities. The governments rarely play such an expected role under the globalization trend at the moment. An ideal way for integrated coastal zone management is co-management without corruption among governments, private sectors and community interests.

The structure of fisheries consists of coastal fisheries, offshore fisheries and distant-water fisheries. The most important fisheries is the coastal fisheries. Other fisheries seek for pelagic species and addition to coastal fisheries, not vice versa. Managing coastal fisheries wisely will benefit the society. Expected contributions of fisheries and fishing villages to the society include renewable resource utilization; environmental protection; protection of lives and assets of people like rescue, surveillance and environmental monitoring; places for marine recreation and education; succession of culture such as festivities and; economic and employment opportunities in remote areas (Fishery Agency, 2006). If a remote fishing village collapsed, illegal activities such as smuggling, kidnapping and environmental problems resulting in higher MCS (Monitoring, Control and Surveillance) cost. Thus, any integrated coastal zone management must live with fisheries, aquaculture and fishing communities.

Roles of Aquaculture in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Aquaculture plays significant role in society's economy. From just capture fisheries, production expands to aquaculture with capture fisheries. Aquaculture is a source of income and a resource enhancement to profit-oriented entities and rural communities, respectively. In the past, fishers' interest in aquaculture was for profit and government interest was resource enhancement. There are few cases where these interests were wisely integrated, though Japan has a good design principle of fisheries co-management such as fisheries cooperative association (FCA) system where governments and fishers work together. However, this system has not been wisely utilized in the ICZM due to conflicting interests among administrative jurisdictions. In 2007, the Basic Law of the Ocean was enacted in Japan and many proposals have been received (RIOE, 2008). However, it may take some time to develop any comprehensive integrated coastal zone management plans.

Aquaculture may play an important role in ICZM since it contributes to both resource enhancement for capture fisheries and economic opportunities for respective coastal communities (Matsuda, 2004). However, the current aquaculture must change from mono-species approach to multi-species approach including seaweeds, filter feeders and herviborous species; from feeding aquaculture to non-feeding aquaculture; and from profit-motivated capital intensive approach to sustainable community development oriented ones. Just investing money is not enough. It must be carefully monitored and improved all the time. Aquaculture may have potential to lead any integrated coastal zone management if wisely managed.

Conclusion

Aquaculture in Asia and Asian context is quite different from profit-motivated Western context such as interests in employment, food security, culture and the community in addition to profitability and income. The current capital- intensive aquaculture developed in Western countries has limited implications to Asia. Asia should not repeat the same failure in the past and must skip the bad experiences and take advantage of "late start".

References

  • FAO, 1995. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
  • ____, 2005. Review of the state of world fishery resources.
  • ____, 2007. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006.
  • ____, 2007. FishStat Plus.
  • ____, 2008. FAO-Fisheries and Aquaculture Infor-mation and Statistics.
  • Fishery Agency, 2006. Fisheries White Paper. (In Japanese).
  • Fukano, N., 2004. A trend analysis of world shrimp aquaculture, Journal of International Fisheries
  • Vol. 6 (1-2): 43-54 (In Japanese).
  • Garcia, S.M. and C. Newton, 1997. Current Situation, Trends and Prospect in World Capture Fisheries, In E. K. Pikitch, D. D. Huppert and M. P. Sissenwine (eds.) Global trends, fisheries management. American Fisheries Society Symposium 20, Bethesda, Maryland, USA: 3-17.
  • Hayashi, K. 2007. Interview on 2 July.
  • Kinki University 21st COE Program. 2008. Marketing and Economics of Farmed Tuna: An approach through the Theory of Food System, Seizando Shoten, Tokyo, 246pp. (In Japanese).
  • Matsuda, Y., 2004. Cultured marine forest as a key concept for responsible fisheries, Proceedings of the 12th Conference of IIFET, July 21-30, 2004, Tokyo. (CD-Rom)
  • Sano, M. 2003. World Market of Salmon: Fish Farm toward Agribusiness, Seizando Shoten. Tokyo 259 pp. ( In Japanese)
  • Sakuma, T., 2007. Survey Report on Salmon AND Trout Aquaculture in Southern Chile.
  • Asia-Pacific Resource Material Center Resource AMaterial 25pp. (In Japanese)
  • Tamura, T. and S. Ohsumi, 1999. Estimation of total food consumption by cetaceans in the world's oceans, The Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo. 16pp.
  • Taya, K. (Ed.), 2003. Shrimp aquaculture in Asia and trade, Seizando-Shoten. 2002pp (In Japanese).
  • JERTO. 2006. JETRO Agro-trade handbook 2006.
  • RIOE (Research Institute for Ocean Economics), 2008. Special Report: The Basic Law of the
  • Ocean. RIOE News AND Report vol. 39 (2): 3-85.
  • Ship and Ocean Foundation, 2005. Ocean White Paper 2005: 62-70.
  • Takahashi, N., 2007. Export leading economic growth AND its income allocation issue: A case of Chile from the late 1980s to the early 2000s, Latin American Report 23)1): 34-43. (In Japanese)
  • United Nations. 2008. Agenda 21.
  • WWF, 2004. Tuna farming in the Mediterranean: the bluefin tuna stock at stake.32pp.

Index of Images

Figure 1 World Fisheries Production: 1950-2005. Source: Fao Fishstat Plus

Figure 1 World Fisheries Production: 1950-2005. Source: Fao Fishstat Plus

Figure 2 World Aquaculture Production by Species: 1994-2006.

Figure 2 World Aquaculture Production by Species: 1994-2006.

Figure 3 World Aquaculture Production by Species in 2006.

Figure 3 World Aquaculture Production by Species in 2006.

Figure 4 World Aquaculture Production by Continent: 1994-2006.

Figure 4 World Aquaculture Production by Continent: 1994-2006.

Figure 5 World Aquaculture Production by Continent in 2006.

Figure 5 World Aquaculture Production by Continent in 2006.

Figure 6 Aquaculture Production of Top 12 Countries: 1994- 2006.

Figure 6 Aquaculture Production of Top 12 Countries: 1994- 2006.

Figure 7 World Shrimp Aquaculture Production by Countries: 1994- 2006.

Figure 7 World Shrimp Aquaculture Production by Countries: 1994- 2006.

Figure 8 World Shrimp Aquaculture Production by Country in 2006.

Figure 8 World Shrimp Aquaculture Production by Country in 2006.

Figure 9 World Salmon Culture Production: 1994-2006.

Figure 9 World Salmon Culture Production: 1994-2006.

Figure 10 World Salmon Culture Production by Country in 2006.

Figure 10 World Salmon Culture Production by Country in 2006.

Figure 11 World Tuna Aquaculture Production: 1994-2006.

Figure 11 World Tuna Aquaculture Production: 1994-2006.

Figure 12 World Tuna Aquaculture Production by Country in 2006.

Figure 12 World Tuna Aquaculture Production by Country in 2006.

Table 1 Food (Calorie Base) Self-Sufficiency Rate by Country in 2003 (%)

Table 1 Food (Calorie Base) Self-Sufficiency Rate by Country in 2003 (%)

Table 2 Estimation of World Population and Food Production

Table 2 Estimation of World Population and Food Production

 

Table 3 Per Capita Grain Consumption (KG/Person/Year)

Table 3 Per Capita Grain Consumption (KG/Person/Year)

Table 4 Maximum Population on Earth Fed by Current Level of Food Production

Table 4 Maximum Population on Earth Fed by Current Level of Food Production

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